There Are Simple (14) Questions In Regards To Federalism
John Juan Dong
Retired Local Government officer in opposition.
May 28, 2015(Nyamilepedia) — I would like to extend my sincere appreciation to IGAAD, AU, UN and the TROIKA for their firm stand behind peace to come to our people of South Sudan. It is a Commission focusing how the future generation shall live forever independently in their progressive civilized States in this increasingly changing world. The new era that has scattered Southern Sudanese societies into bits and has intentionally caused massacre to a particular tribe, the Nuer in the capital Juba is the characteristic of a centralized system of government that need no doubt an explanation. Let us give out our hearts to those who do not know us and especially our beloved young generation and the future leaders.
Let us refocus those who are misled because of greed. It is worth mentioning reading through the lines some youth are getting no accurate and clean records from their elders parents about our “FOUNDING FATHERS” who started the political challenges of old Sudan. They only depend on theories as we shall see from statements answered. Honestly, there are tribal writers from government of Kiir when they write they never dare but completely reject to connect historical events they write with other tribes who rebelled, fought, tortured, and killed in action until the South was became a country. And if they are not perfectly frank, instead they prefer to become bias, their books will also become bias based on tribalism and the reader will be only the tribe. Consequently, as there is no reader who reads his own book, the book will get rotten because of lack of frankness makes the book bias based on personnel sentiments like tribe which restricts the readers to tribesmen.
Consequently, it will get rotten on the shelves without readers to buy. Once shelved it will rot, decay and history lost. This fear between tribes is being sponsored by a “Centralized System of Government” on behalf of a certain community, the Dinka. If central power or government had not being the source dictating this fear, it would have been better as a government for all to expose such fear for those groups suspected to express their view. It is on record that Nuer culture is one of such type to even the British colony as being open with nothing to hide or fear. But how I view the political shape of Kiir’s government towards peace and the crisis facing the country, whatever logic is addressed to make them convinced, would reach them like a whispering wind of Sahara desert in summer. Who will deny central power of president Kiir has no difference between South and North war during 1983-2005.
The present war is worst and immoral. Massacre has been committed by president Kiir forces against Nuer civilians had never been attempted by Omer Elbishier forces when fighting the SPLA. Their plan is to prolong the war for Nuer population to diminish. Have you ever witnessed a professor praising centralized system of government than federalism whether dual or cooperative? Of course no, but in South Sudan in government of Salva Kiir the system is praised highly by scholars in the government as they have extended its life with pride, but why? The answer revolves around tribalism and USD and no more:- The following questions are guided answers to federalism.
PART (A) QUESTIONS
- Can a president of a nation centralize religions if he desires as he centralizes power?
- Is he the legitimate that unites all the tribes and citizens of states to that particular religion? Or it is by self conscience and believes?
- Who is liable to bring up a child so as to become a devoted citizen of his country or her country? Is it the centralized government, or state and local government?
- From where does the country get its wealth? Is it from the central area with that size of the capital city with one single appointed person from a different state to control all states resources with the directive from a president also descended from a certain State or from the same state? Or the country gets its wealth from states and local government where God has inherited them land and waters to invest and population to tax for them to live happily.
- From where the country gets the army to recruit to become national soldiers, and not SPLA? And where do they go after retirement? Or when found unfit or dismissed due to inefficiency? Shall they remain in the central ministry headquarters Juba, or where they are transferred to? Don’t they resort to their mother local councils to get their pensions where their families and parents are?
- Charles Dickens in his book”JANE EYRE”, he described a situation of a poor school child by “Charity begins at home”. From where does power to rule begin? Is it from the central government or from the locality?
- During wars, and especially external ones or regional as like Ugandan Forces, do they begin destruction and mass killing with central power, or it is the state and local government paying the cost in lives and properties (Wealth). If the State has no National Guardsmen of the case of the most fiercest HEGLIEG war is an example when troops from Bhar Al-Ghazal retreated because the Oil field is not in their mother land and left the savage war to Division (4) of Unity State Bentiu and other forces from Juba and Upper Nile. How many bombs dropped at Bentiu and Rub-Kona population and not at Juba population, the centre of all country power? How many citizens died because of bombs? And how many houses burnt down or ruined? Think of the number of cows bombed that cannot be counted. Juba central government by then was just receiving the news through mobile or Thuraya phones as if the war was in Afgahnistan.
- Where do tribal fights occur or exist? Or where do natural disasters cause destructions in lives and properties? Do they exist in central level power in Juba, or naturally and traditionally exist in states and local governments.
- Is central level of government the source of employment in the country at large? The case of thousands and thousands from one tribe seeking for employment and standard of living because financial and economic resources and management have been centralized, were massacred by government troops of presidential guards in Juba capital city.
- Destructions made by Oil explorations to states and local governments in form of populations, and the hundreds of children poisoned by Oil chemical white powder from drilling are not central government children, neither Juba knows them and their whereabouts. The area surrendered to Oil foreign Companies are inheritance land of origins, and not central land of ministry, or minister and not even the president. It is left to them by their ancestors.
- South Sudan had already ten federal government states territories established in February 1994. Powers were pending in central power Khartoum because of war and shall be executed when peace is restored in a united Sudan. Should they be established under a centralized system of governance, or under a federal system as demanded by the people who demanded federalism to exist in the land of origin?
- What type of power was Khartoum going to implement in South Sudan if the CPA brought a unified Sudan as SPLM/SPLA under the leadership of late Dr. John Garang de Mabior was claiming the liberation of the “WHOLE SUDAN”? Khartoum with SPLM/SPLA was going to implement federalism fully as demanded by our FOUNDING FATHERS at Juba Round Table Conference 1947. The following Constitutional procedures as binding instruments to be immediately executed or applied:-
(a) First of all, and for fear of another rebellion to arise in future to take Sudan back again to a savage war as we have now, the new CONSTITUTION of Sudan was going to separate powers between the states powers and federal power.
(b) The relationship between states and federal level were to be governed by a CONSTITUTION. The Federal Government is to be delegated certain powers while all other powers not otherwise prohibited by the Constitution, are reserved to the States. The ten Southern States POWER AND RESPONSIBILITIES should have been separated from Khartoum by the Constitution, and the thousands of innocent citizens killed by centralized power in capital city Juba, government of President Salva Kiir would have not been massacred.
(c) The States were going to be granted a republican form of government.
(14) One of the writers asked “Federal system may not work with imprecise Constitution, and without strong Constitution tribal manipulation may rise”. First who makes the Constitution loose? Of course, It is the central power itself playing around the circle, twisting the Constitution the way it likes. See how presidential term has been illegally extended without the people who brought him to know, and supposed to expire on 21st of May 2015.
PART (B) QUESTIONS
WHY DO WE NEED FEDERAL SYSTEM TO BE INTRODUCED IN SOUTH SUDAN?
- Firstly, we are not selfish to betray our “FOUNDING FATHERS who fought before us to liberate us through federal system of governance on Juba Round Table Conference during a face to face confrontation between the Northern Sudanese politicians and Southern Sudanese politicians headed by the parliamentarian, Both Diu
- Secondly, we are not also selfish to betray our 14 parliamentarian committee delegates headed by late Hon. J.H Odhuhu with the attached list. In 1963 when Sudan Military President General Ibrahim Abbuod closed down the Parliament, the fourteen men committee was to persuaded the Juba Round Table meeting of declaration of federalism 1947 by forming a unified parliamentarians membership given the title SACDNU (Sudan African Closed Districts National Union ) to make them one organized body with one word and one vision which was federalism to be applied in South Sudan. They wrote a petition to United Nation General Assembly through His Excellency and Plenipotentiary of the United States of America to United Nations MR. Adllai E. Stevenson, on the 29th April 1963. Their Objectives are as follows:-
- South Sudan Composed of 64+1 tribes cannot be ruled by a centralized system of governance. We are giving birth to children to develop and not tormented animals to gaze apprehensively. But generations to exercise power as they feel liberal but not justified by a single power from a far distance. It is imperative to note that South Sudan is in 21 century moving along with the world people and its development. Apparently, such winds of change are at the door steps of South Sudan. The youth want to expedite their activities by themselves under federal existence.
- Each State shall have individual powers that consist of three branches of governments. However, that does not mean that the state have powers to legislate all on all matters. The South Sudan Constitution shall spell out the powers of the federal government AND of the “Several 21 States”. Each State Shall have THREE BRANCHES:-
- The Executive, consisting of the Governor and the State agencies.
- To establish a well-functioning Legislature, each State shall have a bicameral institution. It consists of two Chambers. The lower is the House of Representatives with Just only 30 members for example, and the upper chamber, the State Senate with 20 members proposed.
- The Judiciary consists of the Supreme Court and lower Courts
- The Central system, which they called “The Democratic Republic of South Sudan with H.Qs in Juba where thousands and thousands of its citizens were massacred in three days intentionally by government troops of presidential guards in a calculated move to reduce a particular ethnic group, the Nuer. It is a threat to liberty of South Sudan. It is to be given the name or the title “FEDERAL GOVERNMENT”. It is to be governed by a Constitution Document of relationship between the South Sudan States Governments and the South Sudan Federal Government and to be written “THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION OF SOUTH SUDAN”. The Federal Constitution of South Sudan shall recognize the potential for the conflict between and among the two levels of governments, especially in the use of concurrent powers. We must adopt certain strategies to avoid that.
- The huge national debts created by centralized system of one rule, are all state and local government resources.
- Federalism in fact has a dynamic framework of governance. It is a characteristic that fits well in the changing nature of Southern Sudanese life. They want to develop faster, but they cannot do it under a distance of a centralized system of anarchy.
- LOCAL GOVERNMENT:- Each state has different number of Counties with Municipalities in term of States Headquarters. The function is the same, whereas some States use a THREE –TIER System of decentralization, State/ County/township. Others use two, State/County.
You can reach the author at Juandong92@yahoo.com.