South Sudan


South Sudan, the world’s newest state,  is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa bordering Sudan to the north, Ethiopia to the east, Kenya and Uganda to the South, Democratic Republic of the Congo to south west, and the Central African Republic to north west. South Sudan became the world’s newest country in July 2011 after gaining its independence from Sudan following over 50 years of civil war.

About South Sudan: (from the CIA World Factbook)
Area: 644,329 sq km, slightly smaller than Texas

Population: 11,562,695 (July 2014 est.)

Median age: 16.8 years

Capital: Juba

Incumbent President: Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit

Ethnic Groups: Although South Sudan has about 64 tribes, the dominance majority are the Dinka 35.8%, Nuer 15.6%, Shilluk, Azande, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Toposa, Acholi, Didinga, Ndogo, Bviri, Lndi, Anuak, Bongo, Lango, Dungotona, according 2011 estimates.

Religion: Animist, Christian, with Muslim minority.

GDP: $23.31 billion (2014 est.)

GDP per capita: $2,000 (2014 est.)

Unemployment: with the resumption of civil war, and the government being the major employer, unemployment rate is very rampant. The exact distributions are yet to be obtained.

Other Facts: partly from CNN Library.

Despite harboring over 75% of the known Sudanese oil reserves, one of the largest in the continent, South Sudan is poverty-stricken and war-torn.

A demilitarized, jointly monitored Common Border Zone has been established between Sudan and South Sudan to ease tensions regarding the oil-rich Abyei region.

January 1, 1956 – Sudan gains its independence after an agreement between the United Kingdom and Egypt.

March 27, 1972 – The signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement ends 16 years of civil war between the northern Khartoum forces and southern Anyanya rebels. Part of the agreement includes the creation of the autonomous region of South Sudan, with Juba as its capital.

1977 – Oil is discovered in southwestern Sudan. Civil war in the 1980s and 1990s prevents much exploration or development of the oil deposits.

1980s – Prolonged droughts put pressure on water and farming resources.

May 1983 – Kerbino Kwanyin Bol (bor) and William Nyuon Bany (Ayod) fired the first bullets that led to formation of Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/SPLM). Col. John Garang de Mabior led SPLM/SPLA against the government regimes, re-igniting the civil war. The South and other regions (Nuba Mountain and Darfur) fight against the government’s proposal to re-divide the region and the imposition of an Islamic law and militaristic rule.

1989 – The United Nations airlifts famine relief to both sides during the civil war.

1991 – The SPLM/SPLA rebel movement splits along ideological lines – Separation and Unity. While Dr. Riek Machar Teny (SPLM-Nasir) led the call for Self determination (separation), Dr. John Garang de Mabior of SPLM-Torit fights for Unity.

January 25, 1992 – Frankfurt Statement.

1992  –  Peace delegations in Abuja Unification of the SPLM factions.

26th May 1992 – Sudanese Peace conference, Abuja I Communique.

25th May 1993 – Nairobi Peace Talks , Joint Communique.

October 22, 1993 – Washington Declaration.

10 November 1993 – Umma Party on Self-Determination in the Sudan – a Discussion Paper.

6th January 1994 – Common Agenda for IGADD Peace Talks.

20 May 1994 – IGADD Declaration of Principles.

June 26-28, 1994 – Resolutions on Bonn Conference by Sudanese Opposition Parties and Movements.

December 12, 1994 – Political Agreement between the Umma Party and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/SPLA) on Transitional Arrangements and self-determination, Chukudum.
27 December 1994 – Declaration of Political Agreement, Asmara, Eritrea.

March 27, 1995 – Sudan’s government calls for a two month cease-fire at the behest of former U.S. President Jimmy Carter.

June 1995 – Conference of the National Democratic Alliance on Fundamental Issues, Asmara,

1995 – Establishment of a Pan African Commission on the right of self-determination in Africa.

13 July 1995 – South Sudan: The Struggle of the people for their inalienable right of self- determination,

27 April, 1997 – South Sudan Independent Movement/Army (SSIM/A), and other political parties, signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement (KPA) with the Sudanese government.

15 July, 1998 – May 1999: The SPLA calls a three month cease-fire due to regional famine, allowing U.N. supplies to reach famine victims. The cease-fire is extended until government bombs attack two cities in the South.

2002 – South Sudan Independent Movement/Army, the Sudan People Defense Force, under the leadership of Dr. Riek Machar Teny, resumed peace talks on Reunification with the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army, under the leadership of Dr. John Garang de Mabior in Nairobi. SPLM/SPLA (torit) maintains status quo but accepts to reintegrate Dr. Riek Machar, his leadership and his vision of Self Determination into SPLM/SPLA ranks and files.

January 9, 2005 – The Comprehensive Peace Agreement is signed by representatives from the North and the South. Part of the agreement includes independence for southern Sudan within six years and that Islamic law would not apply there.

April 11-15, 2010 – Sudan holds multi-party elections for the first time in 24 years. Salva Kiir Mayardit is elected president of southern Sudan with 93% of the vote.

January 9-15, 2011 – Sudanese people vote in a referendum to secede or remain part of a unified Sudan. Sudanese nationals in the South, North, and in several foreign countries, including Australia, Canada, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, and the United States cast votes.

February 7, 2011 – The Southern Sudan Referendum Commission announces that 98.83% have voted for separation from the North. U.S. President Barack Obama declares Washington’s intention to recognize South Sudan as an independent state in July, when the Comprehensive Peace Agreement is scheduled to end.

March 2011 – Violence breaks out in south Sudan between soldiers and rebel groups, South Sudan  Liberation Army(SSLA) led by Maj. Gen. Peter Gatdet Yaka, and followed by South Sudan Democratic Movement(SSDM) led by Maj. Gen. Johnson Olony, and COBRA led by Gen. David Yau Yau. The rebel groups fight against corruption, leadership failure to install democracy, rule of law, and free and fair elections.

April 27, 2011 – In a speech on state television, President Omar al-Bashir claims the disputed oil-rich region of Abyei on behalf of the North.

May 22, 2011 – The United Nations condemns the violence in Abyei.

May 31, 2011 – The African Union announces that Sudan and South Sudan have reached an agreement over Abyei, in which a demilitarized, jointly monitored Common Border Zone is established.

June 5, 2011 – Fighting between the northern Sudanese Armed Forces and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army of southern Sudan erupts near Kadugli, the capital of oil-rich Southern Kordofan state. The United Nations also reports violence in neighboring Blue Nile and Unity states.

June 15, 2011 – The United Nations says that 102,000 people have fled from the disputed region of Abyei.

June 20, 2011 – Representatives from Sudan and South Sudan sign an agreement calling for the immediate withdrawal of Sudanese troops from Abyei and for joint supervision of the disputed region.

July 9, 2011 – South Sudan becomes an independent nation, with a population of approximately eight million people.

July 14, 2011 – Becomes the 193rd member nation of the United Nations.

July 29, 2011 – South Sudan is admitted to the African Union.

September 8, 2011 – According to U.N. officials, the governments of Sudan and South Sudan reach an agreement that will allow the withdrawal of their troops from the disputed border region of Abyei.

October 2011 – In his first visit to Khartoum since South Sudan’s independence, President Salva Kiir meets with Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir to “reach final solutions” to address continuing differences between their countries.

January 23, 2012 – South Sudan shuts down oil production after accusing Sudan of stealing $815 million of its oil. Sudan says it confiscated the crude to make up for unpaid fees to use the pipeline and processing facilities in its territory.

February 10, 2012 – During talks mediated by the African Union, Sudan and South Sudan sign a nonaggression pact aimed at bringing peace to the border region.

April 12, 2012 – South Sudan forces claim the oil fields in the town of Heglig, which account for about half of Sudan’s oil production.

April 20, 2012 – South Sudan announces the withdrawal of its troops from the contested, oil-rich area of Heglig. Sudan claims that the South Sudan troops were “forced to withdraw.”

May 2012 – President Salva Kiir writes letters to more than 75 government officials and to eight foreign governments in an attempt to recover $4 billion lost to corruption. “If funds are returned, the government of the Republic of South Sudan will grant amnesty and keep your name confidential,” writes Kiir in a letter sent to former and current “senior” officials.

May 30, 2012 – The U.N. peacekeeping mission confirms the full withdrawal of the Sudan Armed Forces from the disputed Abyei region but adds that Sudanese armed police forces remain in the area.

August 4, 2012 – African Union officials announce that negotiating teams from Sudan and South Sudan have agreed to end a dispute on oil payments to allow the resumption of southern oil exports through Sudan’s territories.

September 27, 2012 – Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir and South Sudanese President Salva Kiir sign a deal to resume oil exports and establish a demilitarized zone and principles of border demarcation but do not reach a deal on the status of Abyei, a disputed region claimed by both countries.

January 6, 2013 – Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir and South Sudanese President Salva Kiir agree to temporary arrangements for the oil-rich Abyei region.

March 2013 – Major political differences between President Salva Kiir and his deputy, Dr. Riek Machar Teny, begin to surface.

March 2013 – President Salva Kiir reforms the army; removes over 150 military and police generals and put them on reserve list. The major reason was economic recession but political analysts cite political differences within the SPLM/SPLA.

March 8, 2013 – Defense ministers from Sudan and South Sudan sign an agreement to soon withdraw their respective military forces from the 14-mile-wide demilitarized zone between the countries.

May 2013 – SPLM fails to hold its National Liberation Council meetings.

May 2013 – President Salva Kiir strips off his Deputy’s “delegatory” powers.

July 2013 – President Salva Kiir dissolves the cabinet and removes his long-term deputy, Dr. Riek Machar Teny. The president also removes the SPLM Secretary General, Cde. Pagan Amum Okiech, from his position and bars him from leaving the country or speaking to the media.

August 2013 – President Salva Kiir announces his new lean cabinet. Parliament rejects appointment of Telar Ring Deng as the new minister of justice on his credentials.

November 2013 – President Salva Kiir dissolves the ruling party, SPLM, and declares all positions, except the position of the chairman, vacant. The president also warns to dissolve the parliament and the new cabinet.

Dec 06, 2013 – Dr. Riek Machar Teny, Pagan Amum, Rebecca Garang de Mabior and other reformists hold a press conference and schedules a public rally.

Dec 09 2013 – Government delegation, led by James Wani Igga, hold a press conference to encounter the the Dec 6 conference.

December 15, 2013 – Deadly clashes begin, which President Salva Kiir later calls a failed coup attempt by soldiers loyal to sacked deputy Riek Machar. Days later, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs says 500 died and 800 were wounded in the fighting.

December 23, 2013 – The U.S. military’s Africa Command announces it is positioning 150 Marines in Djibouti in East Africa to be able to respond should conditions in South Sudan deteriorate even more. On the 24th, 50 of these Marines are moved closer, to Entebbe, Uganda, and on January 3, Marines evacuate about 20 U.S. Embassy staff members from Juba.

December 24, 2013 – The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously to authorize 5,500 additional troops to bolster its mission to protect civilians.

January 6, 2014 – Talks between South Sudan’s government and rebels begin in Ethiopia, to resolve the three-week long violence that left more than 1,000 people dead and forced 200,000 from their homes.

January 11, 2014 – Between 200 and 300 women and children, fleeing violence in South Sudan, die when an overloaded ferry capsizes near Malakal.

January 23, 2014 – The South Sudanese government and rebels sign a cease-fire, which calls for an immediate end to all military operations and for the protection of civilians. The cease-fire agreement goes into effect on January 24.

February 18, 2014 – The U.N. peacekeeping mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) reports of renewed fighting in Malakal between pro- and anti-government forces, despite the cease-fire signed in January.

March 2014 – The United Nations says that more than a million people have fled their homes since the conflict began in December 2013, including 803,200 internally displaced.

March 17, 2014 – Militants attack a U.N. peacekeepers’ base in Bor, capital of the Jonglei state. At least 48 people are dead after the militants use rocket-propelled grenades to breach the base, where peacekeepers have been sheltering nearly 5,000 civilians.

February 21, 2015 – The United Nations says 89 children have been abducted from a South Sudanese School by Government militia led by a government general, Maj. Gen. Johnson Olony.

March 05, 2015 – The Principle delegations led by President Salva Kiir and Dr. Riek Machar Teny fail to reach the dateline to sign a peace agreement in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to end the conflict.

April 2015 – Two Government factions fight one another in Malakal, Upper Nile State. The Maj. Gen. Johnson Olony, the former SSDM militia leader, seize Malakal from the government troops.

  6 comments for “South Sudan

  1. December 13, 2014 at 6:04 am

    By Gal Gony Gatluak
    December 13, 2014 – The current ongoing conflict in South Sudan for the most part has taken a tribal turn, pitting Dinkas against Nuers, with the rebel fighters made up of exclusively Nuers. However, of recent, in an effort to lure Nuers into rebel ranks, rumors are abound that several Politician who hail from Nuers region had been Supporting Government Among the rumors is that a decorated Daniel Rial Lok had been killed, the news which turned out to be a mere lies meant to boost the morale of the Government according to Buay Malek. For starters, Uncle Rial held from Gajaak Community of Longechuk County. he Join SPLA/M in 1983s, Rial was loyal SPLM member who work voluntarily for peace and after he came back from western world
    During the conflict broke out in mid December last year, Rial was in Juba, but when Salva kiir tribal army hunts Nuer tribes, Rial fly to Ethiopia to join his people on the ground to fight for Total Change of the current regime of Salva kiir. During the broke of the conflict, Several incidents triggered out in Greater Upper Nile Region which result to lost of Captain Kun Kuoth Balok who is brother son to Rial killed in Malakal Battle Fields. Therefore, Rial had to literally escape from the clap of his Dinka handlers. Rial went on to mobilizes Gajaak Youth to fight for Governmnt along with Former Governor of Upper Nile State. Mr. Dak Duop Bichiok and Major General Sadam Chayot Nyang and other MPs of Maiwut & longechuk Cou nties), with aim of protecting the interest of Nuers.
    Now, with rumors of Daniel Rial’s defection, many questions can be asked. The answers of which will determine the course of future of this conflict. For example, will Rial join his Current enemy, Salva kiir or he will have to be in SPLM/IO, such as he did during mobilization and he loss many of his relatives because of intention of Salva kiir want to clean off nuer tribe?
    According to Buay Malek allegation, Daniel Rial was neither beated nor killed by SPLA/IO. He is a live that is baseless allegation. You need to stop fabrication lies. All Nuers community worldwide known about you and we call you as blood sucker of innocent nuer who were killed by your primitive kiir. But there will be a time for you to face the consequence about what you are doing.
    Gal Gony is the owner of The South Sudanese for Peace and Reconciliation Forum (SSPRF). He can be reached at


  2. February 10, 2015 at 7:07 am

    As thing became critical in South Sudan after the war broke out in mid Dec. 2013, citizens confuse of how to describe the government which is currently ruling in Juba. South Sudanese are now expose to suffering simply because of dictatorship practice by the Kiir and his cabinet and the fail of government in Juba to achieve its goals which were the means of struggle during the liberation of South from Sudan and make SPLM capable for separation. South Sudan was declare as a failed state by UN in 2012 but many government officials such as Marial Benjamin objected the decision made by UN to mention South Sudan in the list of the failed states. This came true when presidential guards who are mostly Dinka from Warrap kill innocent Nuer in Juba as a result of disagreement in SPLM meeting. What is the relation between Nuer and SPLM meeting if Mr. Kiir is not a tribal chief who got power through death of John Garang? So, many people who are either SPLM members or benefit from SPLM government are now suffering for what they don’t know where it begin. Therefore, the fail of state to tight its foreign relation,utilize the potential resources contribute to the current political turmoil and collectively can be use to describe South Sudan as banana republic.
    I personally describe South Sudan as banana republic because the country is politically unstable where the economy is largely depends on export of oil and in turn no development since independent in 2011. It typically has stratified social classes including a large impoverished working classes and ruling plutocracy of business, political and military elites. Such a banana republic is a country where economy is operated as a commercial enterprise for the personal private profit, effected by the collusion between the state and favored private exploitation of public funds and land, while that case debts incurred thereby are not considered as government responsibility. Those imbalanced economy remain limited by the uneven economic development of some parts of the nations and tends to cause the national currency to become devalued fake paper-money, rendering the country ineligible for international development credit. Such governments by thieves is manipulated by the foreign interest and function mostly as ceremonial government unaccountable to its nation. A political corruption and power greed like the one we have in South Sudan has happened to other countries like Honduras and Guatemala but the result was so bad after that policy.
    After South Sudan was declare as Failed state ranking Number four in the list, people begun to react negatively blaming UN for mention Sudan for no reason. While watching SSTV, I heard the word mostly use by many politicians in Juba ”’ we condemn the decision made by UN and consider it as a rubbish”’ they echoed. Since that time I agree to the decision made by UN in mentioning South Sudan as a failed state. A country fail when it failed at some o its normal functions such as delivery of basic services and responsibility as a sovereign government. Funds for peace characterize a failed state as having the following characteristics:
    1- Loss of control of its territory or the monopoly on the legitimate us of physical force therein.
    2- Erosion of legitimate authority to make collective decisions.
    3- Inability to provide basic services.
    4- Inability to interact with other state as a full member of international community.
    Common characteristics of a failed state include a central become so weak or ineffective that it has little practical control over much of its territory, not capable providing basic services, widespread corruption and crime committed by official and no good court that judge them,refugees and involuntary movement of populations and sharp economic decline.
    Typically South Sudan has been rendered ineffectively since 2006 and up to now it is very difficult to enforce its laws uniformly due to nepotism and cronyism or provide basic services to its citizens because of high greed, extreme political corruption,impenetrable and ineffective bureaucracy, judicial ineffectiveness, military interference in politic and cultural situation in which traditional leaders wield more powers than the state. It may also be describe as kleptocats state on the notion that; while the state may function in general the regime favor only some ethnicity in the national capital, I have policies at the substrate level that collapse in term of infrastructure, economy and social policy. Such a country like South Sudan fail outside the government control, and therefore becoming a de facto ungoverned part of globe.
    So, South Sudan is a country rule by a gangs who use public funds for their personal interest and have a kleptocracy style as been seen by many South Sudanese.
    Author is student of Upper Nile University and can be reach by:


  3. April 8, 2015 at 12:15 pm

    I believe that we will captured Dingka animals this year.if you live your country, it not mean that you are women,today JANG will be JANG.AND NAATH WILL BE NAATH THIS YEAR.


  4. Wie
    April 10, 2015 at 3:08 am

    I want my emaile to be conected


  5. June 5, 2015 at 11:41 am

    Mr:Gal Gony G/luak how are u my brother, can i listence about our uncle Marial Lok, what is happen from him? Explaint it to me. When & Were &Why!. By Koang Thuok Mabor


  6. June 5, 2015 at 12:08 pm

    Realy the out break war in south sudan there ill be a resolution b/c dinka & nuer are brother’s & are 2 big population in s.sudan no need of somebodyelse to saperate them but if 1 tribe win he examine another tribe & if he win he ill be arulling party untill s.sudan end so i………


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