The Debate: Understanding Federalism

United Regions of South Sudan (Federal System)

 Federalism Base on Geographical and Regional System: a peaceful solution to the conflict in South Sudan

By Rev Bafel Paul Gak Deng

south_sudan_map_statesBlessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called sons of God (Mathew 5:9)

June 11, 2014(Nyamilepedia) — The Comprehensive Peace Agreement between Sudan and South Sudan was signed on January 9, 2005 in Nairobi Kenya, between Sudan People Liberation Army (SPLA) and the government of Sudan. This accord was witnessed by renounced international personalities as well as Colin Powel, the former Secretary of State for the United State of America. In April 11, 2010 a national election was held in Sudan following the terms of the agreement in which the president, the vice president, state governors, members of the national legislative assembly, members of the State Legislative assemblies, and Counties assemblies were elected.

On January 9, 2011, a referendum was held in Southern Sudan to determine if the South would want to separate from the North and constitute an independent Country. The People of South Sudan voted overwhelmingly for the separation of South Sudan from the North to become an Independent country on its own rights. South Sudan then became independence on July 9, 2011. With the independence of the South prayers and hopes, the people of South Sudan were for the grace of the Lord to be bestowed on this young nation and for peace to reign on South Sudan and Sudan as well. Unfortunately, this young country in Africa went back to war again on December 15, 2013. The fighting that erupted on December in the capital of South Sudan, Juba, started as a political conflict within the ruling SPLM party. This conflict quickly transformed into an ethnic conflict with people being killed along ethnic line. The conflict soon engulfed the national army splitting the army into two factions, the faction supporting the current president of South Sudan, Mr. Salva Kiir and the faction supporting his former vice, Dr. Riek Machar. The conflict that started with disagreement between leaders of the ruling party soon spread to the states with devastating consequences inthe three states that are located in the Greater Upper Nile region. Today, it is estimated that about 1.3 million people have been forced to flee their homes and 90,000 are currently sheltering in UN bases and compounds across the country and 100,000 are displace to the neighboring countries and 86,000 are hiding for safety in the bushes of South Sudan.

Peaceful solution to the conflict in South Sudan

(United Regions of South Sudan)

The Republic of South Sudan needs a new system of local governance and administration which should be put into place immediately. This new system should be based on a Presidential, Federal Republic, and Representative Democracy ideals, similar to the United Arab Emirates and the United States of America. The United Arab Emirates is governed by a federal supreme council made up of the seven emirates of Abu Dhabi, Ajman, fujarah, Shajiah, Dubai, Ras-elkhimah, and Umm-Alqaiwain. All responsibilities not granted to the national government are reserved to the emirates or States. A percentage of oil revenues from each emirate are allocated to the UAE central budget. The capital is Abu Dhabi. In 1962, Abu Dhabi became the first of the emirates to begin exporting oil. The first president of the emirates focused on the development of the emirates and directed oil revenue into healthcare, education, and infrastructure. Today’s, emirates oil services ranked seven largest in the world along with the seventeen largest natural gas reserves. Emirates has a developed high income economy which enjoys a sizable annual trade surplus and ranks as the world’s nineteenth highest in term of GPD per capita (nominal). Its most populous city of Dubai has emerged as global city and a business gateway for the Middle East and Africa.

South Sudan is home to many tribes (63) and wide variety of ethnic and language groups that speak different languages or dialects. The only system that will bring the people of South Sudan together and rebuild the truth which has been destroyed by the ongoing ethnic war is the federation of independent regions of the United Regions of South Sudan with 3 administration units:

  • National Government.
  • State Government.
  • Local Government.

United Regions of South Sudan (URSS) consist of three greater regions: Greater Equatoria, Greater Upper Nile, and Greater Bahar Elgzal. Each region is composed of states. Below is a URSS mapping of states within the three greater regions:

  • StatesforGreaterEquatoria region:
    1. Eastern Equatoria State.
    2. Central Equatoria State.
    3. Western Equatoria State.
  • States for Greater Upper Nile region:
  1. Jonglei State.
  2. Upper Nile State.
  3. Unity State.
  • States for Greater Bahar Elgzal region:
  1. Western Bahar Elgzal State.
  2. Warrap State.
  3. Lake State.
  4. Northern Bahar Elgzal State.

The national arm forces in each region should be combined together and create an equal atmosphere. No soldier should be judged by their ethnicity or by tribe because we are all from the same country and have same color of skin and culture connection. Moreover, each region should recruit 50,000 soldiers and train, and educate them equally. Additionally, the states forces in each region should also be trained and educated equally (police, prions, wildlife, fire brigade, etc.). Both national and station force should be educated to respect the law and the URSS constitution.

We need to share and develop these suggestions and make them useful for the new nation, the United Regions of South Sudan. We want to deliver to our beloved citizens the services that they need in term of hospitals, schools, water sanitation, roads, and agriculture. We want to see our children playing sports competing with other countries and our women enjoy their freedom in social activities. We want to see the three regions of South Sudan living in unity and cooperating with one another. We want to see our churches praise the Lord and the Muslim brothers enjoy the same privilege in unity and love in the United Region of South Sudan.

Finally, we are here by passing our condolence to all people including me, who may have lost a love one that died during the ongoing war. God bless their souls and rest in peace.

Related articles on the debate:

Author: Rev Bafel Paul Gak Deng

Chairperson of Peace and Reconciliations Commissions of Upper Nile State, South Sudan


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