John Juan Dong
Retired Local Government Officer
March 17, 2015(Nyamilepedia) — On the 5th of March, the International University of IGAD for Peace, Reconciliation, Accountability and Good Governance in Addis Ababa Ethiopia, concluded its nine (9) months academic year course. The eight days of final exams conducted between 26th of Feb 2015 and the 5th of March was actually an intensive indirect crossed-training course; testing the wisdom of Southern Sudanese rivaling leaders, president Kiir and former Vice president Dr. Riek Mach, the leader of SPLA/SPLM in opposition. The examination results are expected to reflect to the world whether the two leaders have been honestly fed with perfect and scientific information by their sources or not.
The findings will justify to the world which one of the two leaders cares much about his people; by reading the mind of the supporting group whether they are for a comprehensive peaceful solution through implementation of a decentralized system of federalism to separate power between the centre and states to local Government and avoid destruction of the country, or they remain centralized in the same situation of slippery pool of blood of innocent Southern Sudanese People.
The same study findings will reflect who has the vision of the country having 64 +1 tribes can enjoy life, rule themselves, and enjoy power and responsibilities like the rest people of the world. IGAD, AU and the United Nation Security Council all have given an ample time of nine (9) months crossed-training for both parties and especially the two leaders to read their leadership books perfectly, before exams which commenced on the 22nd of Feb.2015 and ended 5th of March. One of the important secret of this indirect examination and which the two parties never considered was that, the paper was testing their wisdom before the world whether they have the charisma of ruling or they have the theory of dictatorship like on the 16th,17,th and even 1th of December 2013“just kill them like rats with the centralized power of their Oil and let what will happen happens”.
Luckily enough, while the two candidates were on break on Sunday, two important messages were intercepted through website. The interceptors read the message with hope and enthusiastic mind that they get the best answer to the world from the two candidates especially from the president of South Sudan who should bear the pain of his people with hope that they get the best answers to the world. These messages are:-
The Security Council was adopting Resolution 2206(2015), to lay groundwork targeting sanctions in South Sudan and create a system to impose sanction on those blocking peace in South Sudan.
The top US diplomat John Kerry has sent a historical message to government of Salva Kiir reading that “Legitimacy is not presumed right of South Sudan government. It is a presume right of any government. It is conferred by the people, and it is sustained only by demonstrating leadership that serves all people”. The above two messages are indicators of good answer
The set up of Africa Union (AU) Commission of Inquiry in 2014 offers equally an official point of reference. credit goes to not only the Commission but to every African citizen on behalf of African leaders in general for the fair scientific result in the history of Africa and for the world at large to testify. Further reference is drawn to my statement directed to African leaders in my article last January 2015 in Sudan Tribune and email@example.com under the title( Look at the republican motto carefully you get the type of system we are in). The statement reads “IGAD is completely wavering, rejecting to address the root cause, while preferring and taking the line of compromise silently and never talked about the massacre. If compromise is the modern procedure in solving deaths caused by government amounting to massacre in African nation, then I think is better we resort to our African traditional chief courts. But if the criminal is a government power where do we resort to? My best advice to our African leaders is that any slight blame that touches them touches us most because we are the nation, and without us no leader is blamed. Led IGAD and African Union look out this time, when they realize that the United Nation and the white people are moving slowly as if they are ignorant about the whole case ( since 2006-up to Sunday night 15/12/2013). Never! They are just testing African leaders of today’s century whether they are honest and competent to resolve crimes against their people, or appreciate them and bend low” The above messages are indicators of good answers.
The eight (8) days’ examination paper based on one Comprehension question needed a responsible answer basing on the charisma of leadership of 64 +1 tribes and the slippery bloody pool.
Crossed- training examination Paper (One) – Case study
“A certain three years new born country in Africa, gained its independence lately on the 9th of July 2011 through the help of world community especially the TRIAKO and the AFRICAN UNION and unexpectedly introduced a centralized verdical system of governance. Unfortunately, when people of South Sudan and the world at large were preparing for the Birth Day of Christ, an excited shooting on Sunday night of the 15th of December 2013 terrified the whole town of Juba. It was a Holly day in the capital city of the republic of South Sudan, the home of the president where international diplomatic corps live. Heavy machine guns and artilleries roared like thunders. Sleeping birds were left perplexed by hissing bullets while innocent children of God were kept glued on the floor under the bosoms of their mother for two days.
Till 18th there were no movements, telephone calls except for the chris – crossing firing. The next day the of 16th it was discovered that the shooting was orchestrated with an intent to mercelessly massacre one tribe to its extinction. Strategically it was executed through moving from home to home. Late Jiec Maloah, my brother’s son a young aircraft engineer who graduated from Russia in the year 2000 is an among those slaughtered. The killing specifically targeted innocent Nuer civilians or officials in the capital city Juba, the Central Headquarters of the republican government. Consequently, the flame covered the whole country forming rebellion to protect humanity against the system of government that had a projected massacre to extinct Nuer tribe across the country. Eastern and western Equatoria had already established a rebellion supporting Dr. Riek Machar. Western Bhar Algazal had already joined rebellion and are still fighting government forces til today.
The war has now taken two years without stopping displacing over two million citizens now in UNIMISS camps and about 1.5 million people seeking asylum and scartered in East Africa and Europe, specifically US and Autralia. One is prompted to ask: What are the prospects of restoring total peace in this young country? If federal system were to be introduced, wouldnt it offer a multiplicity of solutions to the political, socio-cultural and economic challenges without bloodshed? Besides, the great number of rural- urban migrants seeking for job opportunity would get settled in their respective states, central power envies and struggle by a particular ethnic group will be reduced, balanced economic growth boosted and above all, power rooted into people.
In regard to the above case study, Reference is hereby made to the draft forwarded by IGAD guiding the two candidates to give fair answers
1) The draft of the transitional government structure
2) Structure of leadership of the Transitional Government of National Unity(TGNU)
3) Expansion of National Parliament during transitional period
4) The percentage ratio of ministers share by the warring parties
5) Security arrangement and transforms
6) Accountability and Justice for national healing and reconciliation.
“Being a good citizen as well as national leader, give your answers as honest as responsible to your people, country and the world at large. (duration: 12 days as from 22nd of Feb until the 5th of March 2015 in Addis Ababa Ethiopia).
Numerous advices cautioning the government were advanced before the crisis. They apparently appear like a custodian library already installed in The Citizen News Paper to be read by every Southern Sudanese and the entire world at large. The articles were addressed cautioning the government in vain. Some of the excerpts and statements are herby remembered:-
In March 2013 when sharp differences arose in the SPLM Political Bureau meeting as a cover up of a top deadly secret plan, I wrote an article of six pages under the title ”THE TRIPARTITE TRIANGLE RATTLED TO UNITE” The tripartite triangle of course is:- SPLA, SPLM and people.
One of the statement said, “If we are a nation, let the bygone be a bygone as there is no shame in struggle. Development is development between a success and failure and people still progress as nature never changed. We are created lucky. God has given us sharp vision to settle catastrophe or disasters before they occur. God has shown them to us before peace was negotiated (CPA). The disastrous events that happened to countries around the lakes, Rwanda, and Burundi, were scourge that shall remain in memories forever and ever. God has shown us the Libyan crisis, and today what is happening to the children of Syria is excruciating”
Surprisingly, no ear was given to this because of the deadly top secret plan in the pipe line. In July 2013 when differences in the political Bureau were becoming tough and advancing rapidly to the marked date, I wrote again an article of seven pages in July during independence celebration on behalf of the children of South Sudan just to make the government sympathize and identify with children lives and future if such deadly plan executed.
It is under the title “CHILDREN OF SOUTH SUDAN CELEBRATE A JOYOUS SECOND ANNIVERSARY THROUGHOUT THE WORLD” one of the statement said “Do they know who we are? We are Angels of God. We command the souls of those who gave up their lives for our country and we pray for those who have taken the responsibility of unity and progress of this blessed land to lead it to greater heights. May the Almighty God be with them! In the same vein, we accord due respect to our beloved mothers who wake us at dawn, to prepare us for school so as to achieve our aspirations of raising a better generation”. Then I took it up “We must accept that we all make mistakes, inherited by creation in us and lives with us (the sin). If such unique concept is there, then why don’t we forgive each other? We have the belief that what is done today, is going to happen tomorrow and history repeats itself as the earth moves. (President Mursi of Egypt) could not believe his eyes that he would share the same cage with Mubarak.
We are all sinners, and we are all relatives. The ill intention one plans to his brother or his sister today according to belief in God, comes to him tomorrow in the same manner like a dream, like the saying, `What goes around comes around” Similarly, there was no attention given to this article because of the deadly plan which was rapidly approaching. In November 2013, before 45 days from the Juba massacre I got up and entered the washing room and came back, sat on my bed, then looking at Christ’s sculpture on the table still lightning. Suddenly I felt sleepy and had a short sleep when a very clear voice with a message in my mother tongue as if I was in a day bright light and actually it was eight o’clock AM. The voice said, (John Juan you will die). I got up with fear and I knew things were graduating from bad to worst and it is not meant for me according to my usual dreams. But how strong the message was delivered; it must be within my blood, my sons. I got up and looked at the sculpture of Jesus Christ still glimmering, and then dressed up.
I began to think to write an open letter to the president and the political Bureau whose meetings have been suspended by the president and Chairman of SPLM until the marked day. I wrote the article under the Title “WE ARE PART OF NATURE TO FORGIVE AND RECONCILE”. I suddenly got up at 2 o’clock as usual and asked God what proverb from the Gospel to introduce this article. I took up the Gospel of God and hold it with my both hands with my eyes closed, and then opened the Gospel from the middle. I opened my eyes and found page 79 in Mark (4) verse 21-25 when Jesus taught his Disciples with parables by the sea shore about a light under a Bushel and said to them “Is a lamp brought in to be placed under a Bushel basket or under bed, and not to be placed on a lamp stand? For there is nothing hidden except to be made visible; nothing is secret except it comes to light. Anyone who has ears to hear ought to hear. Take care what you hear. The measure with which you measure will be measured unto you, and still more will be given to you.
To the one, who has, more will be given; from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away” This is the word of the Lord the government never dared about. One of the statements of the 19 pages article is “If power is born with some nations, British that ruled the world including the United States of America, would have not become the third or fourth power in the world of today. Who knows but God knows that we shall become a powerful peaceful nation in the world if truth and honesty are made to be our basic principles of ruling with clean hearts. We shall give help to other nations in the world as we were given such help when we were seeking power in God’s name as the earth spins around its Axis. But it seems God’s offer or the great expectation is going to be violated knowingly or unknowingly” The article continues. “The New year should witness an already bright page of one leading party.
The Political Bureau members shall be officially asked by the party leadership( the president of course ) to attend Christmas Celebrations with their elected Governors in their respective States to address the state of affairs in reconciliation to states SPLM Secretariat and to conduct rallies on the 9th of January 2014 in the Third Anniversary of the CPA ( Comprehensive Peace Agreement ). This visit of one political organ party leadership shall relieve political differences of one historical party, which about to get into divisions in just three years time from independence” I continued “ Our main task during establishment, whether executive or political, we completely ignored what can be termed ( The Natural Observation of Surroundings) but we purely depended on theories already made and countries that had achieved such theories since independence 100 year ago or more are still in crisis. God never created us in vain to become No, 193 in UN General Assembly.
The Natural Surrounding touches every physical appearance and existence, especially the environmental outlook, mostly the entire population, big, small, rich or poor. God did not create us in this lovely black color than the rest of the world without secret power. Naturally, you find the big hearted troublesome person (greedy) has less power than the quiet honest white hearted person. The Nuer and Dinka are the biggest two tribes amidst the other tribes. Their existence between tribes is valuable, and without others they cannot exist. It is just weight, like” YES and NO” that cannot separate in human life. They balance any critical situation that can cause destruction to this gifted nation if one of them tries to violate common laws publicly agreed on, or tries to put more weight on others, besides running away with other people’s power.
There is fear as you all know well that the peaceful period of eight years(2005-2013) you have made in principle, may dive into a slippery pool of sorrow” I continued “Any president in the world has his own theory of ruling his nation according to its nature, either to rule in peace or in crisis if he wants. Of course there is no leader who wishes his country to be in chaos, but if not vigilant, whistling wind coming from hot different land, always tries to envy and destroy a blessed nation in a competition. In a country where there are traditional tribes like South Sudan, it is simple to make the two choices possible. To make the country live in crisis, let hatred be caused between tribes, but if you want everlasting peace among all the tribes for generation after generation, then build a pyramid of love between all the tribes in the country to be remembered for thousands of years after the presidential period of a welfare state. It is just simple to make it if you get up at 2: 00 AM and pray to God to get it.”
Unfortunately, on the 15th of December 2013 the secret plan came to light as it was executed. My brother’s son whom I fostered, an Aircraft Engineer Jiec Maoah was among the victims slaughtered on the 16th December of Juba massacre. Student Edward John Juan my son was thrown from 22nd floor tower at Segi University in Malaysia. The plan was executed and the planners are still governing, and power being misused as if nothing happened in the world of 1942 treaty implemented and signed by 51 nations 1945. There is Arab verse line of poetry which says if an authority misuses his power against the innocent, at the end the misusing of power it will turn to him as sorrow( )
Answers of the two Candidates on the evening of 5/3/2013:-
- Answers of SPLA/SPLM leader in opposition according to net lickage
To cleanse the minds of the people of South Sudan of dictatorship, federalism should be introduced as a form of governance. This will be in conformity and appreciation of the request by our founding founders on Juba Round Table Conference 1947. It’s the only logical system of governance for people of South Sudan through which to recover their senses and sensitivity and more importantly to stop “one rule system”. The 15th December 2013 incident instilled fear in the people as regards the use of power by a distant national government. Vesting power into levels of government, dividing it by making each level supreme in its separate sphere is one solution to our problems. Granting concentrated power and un necessary authority to central government puts liberty at stake and for people to suffer. Power must be decentralised in a democratic federal system of governance. State and national power could operate concurrently over the same territory and the same population because they focus on different things, the state on local matters, the national government on more general concerns. In experience to all matters, we must allow both states and national government to coexist as separate as independent units, each with a separate sphere of authority, because both exist to serve the people.
The Transitional Government of National Unity, would have its main task as working out and drafting a permanent Federal Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan. This will prevent the reoccurance of the 15th December incidence in not only president Kiir government but also other governments to come. The permanent Constitution must address and emphasise the separation of power between the federal republic and the federal states. Laws of the national government shall be located to Juba capital city. These central laws shall apply to any individual who lives within the national capital boundaries, while laws in each of the 22 proposed states apply to residents of those states alone. Of course no country without central powers. The central government shall have defined powers, with full sovereignty over external affairs.
It shall have exclusive power to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, coin money, and provides for naturalization of immigrant and maintain South Sudan Arm Forces, and monetary policy for economic welfare reform, foreign affairs, among others. State government controls much of educational policy, Criminal justice, business and professional regualation, public health, among a variety of other important areas. Loca government controls zoning, traffic control, sanitation, educational administration, street repair, and a hundred other services are all managed primarily by local officials acting under a grant of authority from the state.
Separation of Forces just during transitional period so as to establish confidence in the people as Juba massacre is still fresh in their minds . The two million people now in UNIMSS camps are expecting the ushering of a neutral force that they belief to be loyal and protect them during reconciliation process and especially during separation of power as shall be implemented by a Transitional Government of National Unity (TOGNU). The fundamental characteristic of a temporal separation of forces is to reflect to Africa and the world which group is actually deciplined comptent and professionally executing its duties than the other during this short course. Are military leaders of each party qualified in making direct peaceful processing contacts to bring back confidence between the two forces? They were one solid in Dr. John Garang’s hands but are now fighting themselves in the hands of president Kiir in a centralized sytem of governance. There is an Arab proverb “No religious person is bitten twice by the same snake from the same hole لا يُلْدَغُ الْمُؤْمِنٌ مِنْ الْجُحْرِ مَرَتَين) ), therefore they should be abit separated. The two groups should have a joint course under the UNSC over the subject “THE NATIONAL SOUTHERN SUDANESE SOLDIER AND PEOPLE ”. It is a comprehensive course for a new chaper in the history of South Sudan. The three main words “Nation, Soldier, and people” is our main topic of the course for discussion.
It is an intensive one month group course in rotation up to the end of transitiobnal period. In this procedure,the relationship between officers or soldiers will grow immense and improve culminating into nationalism. Patriotism automatically will flourish like growing flowers. Indirectly and gradually, soldiers shall beging to realize the meaning of “National Soldier” and “Chain in Command”. The administration would be streamlined and the crude approach improved. In African tradition, the two brothers cannot start invite each other to their houses without traditional ceremonies are conducted. Therefore the three years rotational course is a sufficient for traditional arrangement to be conducted by Chiefs which were not made since the signing of CPA . They knew it because the project of massacre was not yet executed. The tribal peace reconciliation between Nuers and Dinka being supervised by the former Vice president, which was going to be successful was immediately stopped by a presidential order.
Transitional Security must apply with the separation of powers during transitional period. It shall not stop in Juba of 900 SQM but spread to other states bearing destructiom and without law and order. “You cannot wash your face and leave the rest of the body and claim being clean”.
Wealth sharing between states, local Governments and central government through TAXATION from every state revenue matches efffectively with the implementation policy of federalism. Central government is supposed to have several sources of revenue being collected from the states upon implemention of federalism instead they take from the central level causing redundancy in states because of already made food(Oil ). Wealth from people is being collected individually in form of income tax, exercise tax, payroll tax, estate and gifts taxes, custom duties Royalty tax supposed from Oil receipts, exercise tax and revenue from the corporate income tax and miscellaneous receipts as well as various fees and charges. In short such collection by central government is termed as “Government take”. It is the to total revenue collected by the central government or whatever title you give, from the total GROSS collected by each state out of the (10) states from their revenue. The wealth are the resources of all states government . The question is, are these taxes existing? If they exist, are they being collected by the centralized government of the republic of South Sudan? I feel shy to say that the centralized government has made local councils (Counties ) as lazy boys unable to activate collection of revenue since they get their revenue directly from the centralized power.
The contrary is true, it is the central government to take “DIRECTLY” from states governments revnue and with a small percentage instead, states and local government take from the centre. Is it not better the central power takes its reasonable share from states revenue in order to give an eye on which states is not actively making use of its natural resources. This is where the country will talk proud that it has wealth. Social Service Tax(SST) which like income tax, which was being collected during regional government from every able adult male from age 18 is neglected because of Oil. Central government in Juba contributes much in the absence of resources as well as security. Collection of taxes from individuals is by itself a security check. SST which has been abandoned has security importances. 1/ Each tribe has its own books of Social Service Tax collectin. Such tax is being collected and supervised by an authority from the clan of that tribe and is called “Gatuot” in Nuer (Goleader). If all adult men from 18 years are registered then you have known your county personal income tax as well as tribal fighters. If identified, than the security is controlled. On other hand, grazing zones and number of cows which are not taxed because of Oil can be known and taxed. If a local tax payer is known by the government then it will be difficult for him to practice offenses, and crimes are easily detected, as well tribal fights are easily eradicated.
Parameters of permanent Constitution making process. No permanent Constitution is quite stable and liked by all the people except introduction of Federal Constitution. As the world isnt satisfied with what Juba central power has done to its people, Should we again follow the wild practice of governance for another massacre to be executed? In my opinion, and according to our ethnic tribal set up, it is preferred to establish a Dual Federalism System of governance in South Sudan during three years of Transitional Government of National Unity. It is better to arrange now for Dual Federal System of Ruling one people one country. The central power has to be restricted and be provide with sufficient power to protect the national interest. Dividing power between two levels of government, national and state is one of the solutions to South Sudan crisis. Courts are to be separated, local to state federal Courts by the Constitution.
It is worth recalling the Federal Constitution shall recognize the potential for conflict between and among the two levels of government, especially in the use of concurrent powers. It is time for states to unite and cooperate and explore related projects by themselves especially the neighboring States. States Governors Conferences shall be scheduled by Governors with timeframe and invite federal power to chair such conferences. Such conferences are to be conducted in rotation. In this regard, Selfishness, greed and envy will automatically disappear as influences from central power will reduce. Southern Sudanese will recall their political history established by our Founding Fathers without dictatorship. No ready made agenda from the central power. Each state has his own state Agenda in which during one day meeting, these ten papers are collected by a body within the conference to organize and purify them to become one Agenda. Its here that, if there are issues related to Federal Government, the chairman who is the central power, the president himself, shall immediately summon federal personals (minister, or ministers concern ) to come and join the conference which is scheduled a head of time. These federal personnel are to defend, elaborate or even ask and also demand on behalf of federal government. Certainly at the end, people will regret why there was a massacre? Confidence among sinners (Man in creation ) is not a program that is being influenced from the centre. By themselves, with themselves, will prepare to introduced direct questions on their own. They know their facts and live in facts that they have in mind. Highway roads, security, and mechanized economic agricultural projects are highly expected to be introduced as grazing pastural zones are shared between states.
National Assembly and Council of states and the states Assemblies across the country to be reshuffled for power sharing, and to equalize confidence among people of one nation. It is a new page to instill and establish honest as it lacked before. The present National Assembly is established by the geographical representative from the ten states. It has to be reshuffled so that they go down to where there are people their brothers and sister in the opposition areas to talk peace and reconciliation, as they also re establish confidence making them prepare for the next general elections.
Transitional Justice. This a neutral and important organ and is found where there are sinners. It is not meant to be biased in profession and in execution of duties. It meant for peace. But Justice in a centralized system becomes dominant in the hand of the ruling power, and especially when the country is expiencing divisive politics. Therefore separation of Courts is so important. Central and States Courts must be separated by temporal amendment of the present transitional constitution, while permanent Constitution which shall be made during transitional period shall be the supreme over state constitution, except…………( as we shall in the next article the title “ why our Founding Fathers struggled for federalism?”
The African Union Commission Report to be brought to light. By bringing it to public domain, it will help enhancing the process of justice, reconciliation and healing. It must be handled by the AU and the UNSC respectively.
Answers of the president of South Sudan, Salva Kiir Mayardit according to net lickage
No federal system to be introduced, except the present central system of government exists
Rejections of transitional Security
Rejecting wealth sharing
Rejecting Parameters of permanent constitution making process
Rejecting National Assembly and Council of States to be reshuffled up to states
Rejecting Transitional Justice
Rejecting separation of forces during transitional period to establish confidence between the two warring parties . Kiir wanted all forces to be under his command being the General Chief of Command of (SPLA).
In the course of attempting and answering the exams, one question remained un answered: Who executed Juba massacre in thousands against one tribe, the Nuer who gave him their votes?
They are now waiting for the results
The two candidates have been put in dilemma as they never know when the suspension period will end. Their only hope is the examination results which they have discovered at last after the nine months deemed by IGAD and the World as a “Crossed-training period”. Their papers are now being corrected and awarded marks by international experts from IGAD, AU, UNSC, and Troika to declare who has successfully passed the crossed-training exams.
In invent that both candidates failed, the University of IGAD ought to set another examination of both candidates. This will enable an effective and complete assessment and evaluation of candidates. The candidates meanwhile need to revisit their notes (people’s views) both in and out of South Sudan for improved performance in the exams. Short of which will be wasted time and resources as witnessed in the concluded exams. The government must understand that power belongs to people. It is people in UNIMISS and now the reminance of two million people in UNIMISS who elected the presisident, and it is the president who has formed this government on their behalf. So the government is always temporal when such crisis are caused. Even during disasters national government leaders give in their resignations. The case in point is that of the prime minister of South Korea Chung Hong Won tendered in his resignation on his own without being pressed when a south Korean passenger ferry suddenly sank in frigid waters off South Korea.
The prime minister announced his resignation on Sunday morning taking responsibility for the sinking ferry that boarded 462 people, of which 325 were students. 224 South Korean Citizens were drawn in a boat last April 2014. The prime minister gave a gentle statement, “I should take responsibility for anything as the prime minister, but the government can assume no more. So I will reign as prime minister” Of course president Kiir cannot resign on his own since he is the president of verdical policy of a centralized government as well as the thousands of Nuer tribe who gave their votes to him in 2010 general elections and those massacred were not Dinkas from Warab state, his origin. Infact, the AU Commission Invistigation Commission Report that has licked is a justification that president Kiir cannot contradict himself with what he has in picture as we are talking logic. His short answers in that exams can give you the clue.
According to this examination results which are not yet out, the word of caution is “ if one fails for the first time, a benefit of doubt may be accorded. However, once repeated, a vote of no confidence may be passed”.
In the mean time it’s my hamble prayer to all stakeholders to pray to God the almighty to offer wisdom to the president of South Sudan to compensate for the lost lives and properties and to give priority to the country in the struggle to achieve its goals. South Sudan belongs to all peace lovers but not a selected few.
That goes around comes around.
John Juan Dong
Retired Local Government Officer