There Are Simple (14) Questions In Regards To Federalism
John Juan Dong
Retired Local Government officer in opposition.
May 28, 2015(Nyamilepedia) — I would like to extend my sincere appreciation to IGAAD, AU, UN and the TROIKA for their firm stand behind peace to come to our people of South Sudan. It is a Commission focusing how the future generation shall live forever independently in their progressive civilized States in this increasingly changing world. The new era that has scattered Southern Sudanese societies into bits and has intentionally caused massacre to a particular tribe, the Nuer in the capital Juba is the characteristic of a centralized system of government that need no doubt an explanation. Let us give out our hearts to those who do not know us and especially our beloved young generation and the future leaders.
Let us refocus those who are misled because of greed. It is worth mentioning reading through the lines some youth are getting no accurate and clean records from their elders parents about our “FOUNDING FATHERS” who started the political challenges of old Sudan. They only depend on theories as we shall see from statements answered. Honestly, there are tribal writers from government of Kiir when they write they never dare but completely reject to connect historical events they write with other tribes who rebelled, fought, tortured, and killed in action until the South was became a country. And if they are not perfectly frank, instead they prefer to become bias, their books will also become bias based on tribalism and the reader will be only the tribe. Consequently, as there is no reader who reads his own book, the book will get rotten because of lack of frankness makes the book bias based on personnel sentiments like tribe which restricts the readers to tribesmen.
Consequently, it will get rotten on the shelves without readers to buy. Once shelved it will rot, decay and history lost. This fear between tribes is being sponsored by a “Centralized System of Government” on behalf of a certain community, the Dinka. If central power or government had not being the source dictating this fear, it would have been better as a government for all to expose such fear for those groups suspected to express their view. It is on record that Nuer culture is one of such type to even the British colony as being open with nothing to hide or fear. But how I view the political shape of Kiir’s government towards peace and the crisis facing the country, whatever logic is addressed to make them convinced, would reach them like a whispering wind of Sahara desert in summer. Who will deny central power of president Kiir has no difference between South and North war during 1983-2005.
The present war is worst and immoral. Massacre has been committed by president Kiir forces against Nuer civilians had never been attempted by Omer Elbishier forces when fighting the SPLA. Their plan is to prolong the war for Nuer population to diminish. Have you ever witnessed a professor praising centralized system of government than federalism whether dual or cooperative? Of course no, but in South Sudan in government of Salva Kiir the system is praised highly by scholars in the government as they have extended its life with pride, but why? The answer revolves around tribalism and USD and no more:- The following questions are guided answers to federalism.
PART (A) QUESTIONS
- Can a president of a nation centralize religions if he desires as he centralizes power?
- Is he the legitimate that unites all the tribes and citizens of states to that particular religion? Or it is by self conscience and believes?
- Who is liable to bring up a child so as to become a devoted citizen of his country or her country? Is it the centralized government, or state and local government?
- From where does the country get its wealth? Is it from the central area with that size of the capital city with one single appointed person from a different state to control all states resources with the directive from a president also descended from a certain State or from the same state? Or the country gets its wealth from states and local government where God has inherited them land and waters to invest and population to tax for them to live happily.
- From where the country gets the army to recruit to become national soldiers, and not SPLA? And where do they go after retirement? Or when found unfit or dismissed due to inefficiency? Shall they remain in the central ministry headquarters Juba, or where they are transferred to? Don’t they resort to their mother local councils to get their pensions where their families and parents are?
- Charles Dickens in his book”JANE EYRE”, he described a situation of a poor school child by “Charity begins at home”. From where does power to rule begin? Is it from the central government or from the locality?
- During wars, and especially external ones or regional as like Ugandan Forces, do they begin destruction and mass killing with central power, or it is the state and local government paying the cost in lives and properties (Wealth). If the State has no National Guardsmen of the case of the most fiercest HEGLIEG war is an example when troops from Bhar Al-Ghazal retreated because the Oil field is not in their mother land and left the savage war to Division (4) of Unity State Bentiu and other forces from Juba and Upper Nile. How many bombs dropped at Bentiu and Rub-Kona population and not at Juba population, the centre of all country power? How many citizens died because of bombs? And how many houses burnt down or ruined? Think of the number of cows bombed that cannot be counted. Juba central government by then was just receiving the news through mobile or Thuraya phones as if the war was in Afgahnistan.
- Where do tribal fights occur or exist? Or where do natural disasters cause destructions in lives and properties? Do they exist in central level power in Juba, or naturally and traditionally exist in states and local governments.
- Is central level of government the source of employment in the country at large? The case of thousands and thousands from one tribe seeking for employment and standard of living because financial and economic resources and management have been centralized, were massacred by government troops of presidential guards in Juba capital city.
- Destructions made by Oil explorations to states and local governments in form of populations, and the hundreds of children poisoned by Oil chemical white powder from drilling are not central government children, neither Juba knows them and their whereabouts. The area surrendered to Oil foreign Companies are inheritance land of origins, and not central land of ministry, or minister and not even the president. It is left to them by their ancestors.
- South Sudan had already ten federal government states territories established in February 1994. Powers were pending in central power Khartoum because of war and shall be executed when peace is restored in a united Sudan. Should they be established under a centralized system of governance, or under a federal system as demanded by the people who demanded federalism to exist in the land of origin?
- What type of power was Khartoum going to implement in South Sudan if the CPA brought a unified Sudan as SPLM/SPLA under the leadership of late Dr. John Garang de Mabior was claiming the liberation of the “WHOLE SUDAN”? Khartoum with SPLM/SPLA was going to implement federalism fully as demanded by our FOUNDING FATHERS at Juba Round Table Conference 1947. The following Constitutional procedures as binding instruments to be immediately executed or applied:-
(a) First of all, and for fear of another rebellion to arise in future to take Sudan back again to a savage war as we have now, the new CONSTITUTION of Sudan was going to separate powers between the states powers and federal power.
(b) The relationship between states and federal level were to be governed by a CONSTITUTION. The Federal Government is to be delegated certain powers while all other powers not otherwise prohibited by the Constitution, are reserved to the States. The ten Southern States POWER AND RESPONSIBILITIES should have been separated from Khartoum by the Constitution, and the thousands of innocent citizens killed by centralized power in capital city Juba, government of President Salva Kiir would have not been massacred.
(c) The States were going to be granted a republican form of government.
(14) One of the writers asked “Federal system may not work with imprecise Constitution, and without strong Constitution tribal manipulation may rise”. First who makes the Constitution loose? Of course, It is the central power itself playing around the circle, twisting the Constitution the way it likes. See how presidential term has been illegally extended without the people who brought him to know, and supposed to expire on 21st of May 2015.
PART (B) QUESTIONS
WHY DO WE NEED FEDERAL SYSTEM TO BE INTRODUCED IN SOUTH SUDAN?
- Firstly, we are not selfish to betray our “FOUNDING FATHERS who fought before us to liberate us through federal system of governance on Juba Round Table Conference during a face to face confrontation between the Northern Sudanese politicians and Southern Sudanese politicians headed by the parliamentarian, Both Diu
- Secondly, we are not also selfish to betray our 14 parliamentarian committee delegates headed by late Hon. J.H Odhuhu with the attached list. In 1963 when Sudan Military President General Ibrahim Abbuod closed down the Parliament, the fourteen men committee was to persuaded the Juba Round Table meeting of declaration of federalism 1947 by forming a unified parliamentarians membership given the title SACDNU (Sudan African Closed Districts National Union ) to make them one organized body with one word and one vision which was federalism to be applied in South Sudan. They wrote a petition to United Nation General Assembly through His Excellency and Plenipotentiary of the United States of America to United Nations MR. Adllai E. Stevenson, on the 29th April 1963. Their Objectives are as follows:-
- South Sudan Composed of 64+1 tribes cannot be ruled by a centralized system of governance. We are giving birth to children to develop and not tormented animals to gaze apprehensively. But generations to exercise power as they feel liberal but not justified by a single power from a far distance. It is imperative to note that South Sudan is in 21 century moving along with the world people and its development. Apparently, such winds of change are at the door steps of South Sudan. The youth want to expedite their activities by themselves under federal existence.
- Each State shall have individual powers that consist of three branches of governments. However, that does not mean that the state have powers to legislate all on all matters. The South Sudan Constitution shall spell out the powers of the federal government AND of the “Several 21 States”. Each State Shall have THREE BRANCHES:-
- The Executive, consisting of the Governor and the State agencies.
- To establish a well-functioning Legislature, each State shall have a bicameral institution. It consists of two Chambers. The lower is the House of Representatives with Just only 30 members for example, and the upper chamber, the State Senate with 20 members proposed.
- The Judiciary consists of the Supreme Court and lower Courts
- The Central system, which they called “The Democratic Republic of South Sudan with H.Qs in Juba where thousands and thousands of its citizens were massacred in three days intentionally by government troops of presidential guards in a calculated move to reduce a particular ethnic group, the Nuer. It is a threat to liberty of South Sudan. It is to be given the name or the title “FEDERAL GOVERNMENT”. It is to be governed by a Constitution Document of relationship between the South Sudan States Governments and the South Sudan Federal Government and to be written “THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION OF SOUTH SUDAN”. The Federal Constitution of South Sudan shall recognize the potential for the conflict between and among the two levels of governments, especially in the use of concurrent powers. We must adopt certain strategies to avoid that.
- The huge national debts created by centralized system of one rule, are all state and local government resources.
- Federalism in fact has a dynamic framework of governance. It is a characteristic that fits well in the changing nature of Southern Sudanese life. They want to develop faster, but they cannot do it under a distance of a centralized system of anarchy.
- LOCAL GOVERNMENT:- Each state has different number of Counties with Municipalities in term of States Headquarters. The function is the same, whereas some States use a THREE –TIER System of decentralization, State/ County/township. Others use two, State/County.
You can reach the author at Juandong92@yahoo.com.
You said it all Honorable John Juan Dong. S.sudan history really disinterests s.sudanese readers, due to the way its written by tribalist dinkas who only need the world to hear only about dinka deeds in S.sudan when we all fought 4
To All GatNor, Wani, and Makol:
This is to informing that first if I am commenting on this site to please ass any body: I don’t need to and never will to agree with all your points of view to determine myself that I am a Nuer; and if I am disagree or agree with your view points then I am not a nuer or Equatoria nyam nyam so be It and like maby of you , I always be South Sudanese…
So this Is discussed board and I can say anything I want and everything else you want..There is no personal.
Also Wani and Makol, if I needed more schooling as you mentioned it, then in the Naivasha Hotel during the CPA process all the way to Nairobi, 2005 the IGAD, the Dr. Garang team Will not assigned me with 64″ inches big Screen Computer for documentation Draft type Writing if I am not qualify to be there: for your basic information during the CPA PROCESS for example, IGAD Mediator team, Dr Garang negotiated team and Bashir negotiate teams choose the 34 members (myself included) Computer Specialists Documentation Protocols Draft Writing Team; which were assigned to put format together Information all agreed protocols into official Draft type Writing Documents which were used Finally later in Nairobi Nyayo Stadium.
Wani and Makol, if i needed schooling again as you said i am weak in writing, WHY accepted my writing; For example in 2005 each protocols we format in official Draft type Writing Documents each copy must to go to UN, USA, CANADA, UK, Norway, African Union, and IGAD and Also to the Stakeholders: SPLM, NCP and Civil Organization etc. The Dr Garang negotiated idea was to make everyone a witness and owned the CPA of his or her own terms just in case if anything is wrong; based on those Draft protocols.
So Wani and Makol if my English and Writing were lacking or In doubt then I should not be there In first place So be honest and Do not insulting..we are just in social media mirror.
Thank you for your understanding and cooperation .
From your buddy Abuchook.
Hello All the Readers: This article reflects the view of Riek Machar Ebola the Hotel Commander in Chief at Sheraton Hotel in Addis Ababa!
The writer and Reporter of this article is not aware that we are already the Federal Government State of South Sudan: which means that We have three stages of government systems— for example we have Presidential executive leads by elected president, State Government leads by Governor and County Government leads by Commissioner and local governments leads by chiefs and tribal leaders and many other thing within that system ….
The only challenge is an implementation and actionable of the system that was already existing.So my point is that It is very stupid and idiot and naive and lack of understanding and reading of all the protocols of the CPA; if any body who is always talking about Federalism system of government need to be Introduced as a system governance of South Sudan must to read and understand again the road map of the CPA: which stated that the system governance of Southern Sudan must to be decentralized if the people vote for an Independent Republic of South Sudan within 6 years !! In other words this system was Incorporated in the interim Constitution of South Sudan and ratified by the GOSS parliament…
Therefore we have federal government existing but we also lacking the implementation of making It a reality… our elected officials are abusing the systems for their own benefit rather than for the nation and people of South Sudan.
For example if Dr. Garang alive today all these systems of Indirect Federalism must already be Implemented and all citizens of South Sudan will feel better about it: which Dr Garang said let’s take the town to the people which is another form of indirect Democracy and federalism.So forget about Federalism system that you are talking about…we are already in place of federalism…for example in Federal Government of Ethiopia, they have indirect Federalism system which means each 9, or 11 regions or states of Ethiopia are divided and named based on Ethnicity identity e.g. Oromo region, Tigray Region and on and so. In South Sudan we have 10 states which are named based on place or history contact reflect the locality of the local community or country.
To close my point: no matter what Riek Ebola and other craziness Idiots leaders said about Introducing the Federalism system of government, it will never never come true because we already have it in the book…Riek Ebola get It wrong because rebellion is not the best way to solve our family problems as citizens…wrong Judgements from Riek Ebola…Good luck in your hotel’s room at the Sheraton Hotel in Addis Ababa.
Thank you sooooooo much.
People should think first
John dong south sudan was not states it was a state, it means one state and it will be one, just forget about federalism you and Riek Machar talking about. now in south sudan we had federal systems already which is ten states of federal government, do you and Riek Machar think that twenty one states that means federalism? I don’t think so more than one state that is governed by federal systems, by the way I disagree with this federal systems now presented in south sudan because south sudan is one state with twenty four countries, and one hundred sixty four districts that system of government we want in south sudan. the idea of federalism of Riek Machar and his supporters is introduction and implementation of tribalism government systems of Riek Machar in Sudan, if is not the implementation of tribes government state, why we need more states? because the state can be governance by tribe and afterwards is leading the break up south sudan to the independent of three regions that why we need one region and one state as the Republic of south sudan or in my opinion the people’ s Republic of Sudan.
we need federalism now not through referendum as proposed by the government. We Equatorians have suffered a lot and there is no time to waste any more. If there is need for referendum about federalism, why there is no referendum about national security bill including other unwanted bills?
Our dear leaders,pl’se implement things w/ch ll bring change than worsening de situation in the country.we are really suffering on de ground as a civilian in de country.we who are in school also face too much problem,we wanted 2 go back 4 second semester but our currents gets affected with de war.
Firstly, i would like to congratulate the writer on an informed balanced article. The republic of south sudan did not come over night, it was achieved after a number of (decades), hundreds,thounds, millions of years of hardship and fighting. The people have always managed to adapt, be it often at a great lost to our natural harmony. Federalism and true republicism would baring this in mind be achieved under unbiased, human and educated outlook on the future. Our current ten states are good, but moreoverly twenty one states would bring about decentralizational changes the scale of which would be unprecedented to the government, allowing it to attend to more transparent means, rather then the current warmongering amongst opossition parties.
True democracy can only exist unilateral voice of the people. Even if the majority a had the vote in the general election, local ballets,etc the freedom of any “minority entity” groups must also treated as equal to that of the majority- This is what conventionally aggrigates to National constitution.
In this particalur case of south sudan, it was necessary to only form ten states in 1994 because of the difference in circumstances. The (CPA) was signed in 2005. The preveliged land mass would can allow for both ten and twenty-one states. Although forsaganly twenty-one states would open doors to realistic wealth sharing, localise health services, the army would be more evenly sprate over the country bringing greater security. This would have advantages in local recruitments in to the army, (i.e not local melitias or factions). This would also expose local populations to the many enthnic backgrounds in Republic of south sudan bringing coherancy and understanding. We are currently considered a mediocre national having twenty-one states and with our current excellent fiat (exchange) positional would allows to be considered the first Supra-nation in africa. An Advantaged position in a greater african order of things, putting us in position of influence as indicated by our upcoming rail project. We would be the nation to benefit africa for africa yet are still able to learn and perhaps in time be able to exert our part in the international community.
In the central office it would be wise to have a parliament that the head of government the president reports to or serves rather. It would also make sense to have federal congress headed by the prime minister. Whereby the only the federal congress reports to the parliament and the prime minister of that federal congress reports to the congress. The bomas and payams would report to their local states who would be represented in federal congress. This would great harmonious triangle of Governance whereby the positive elements of be it the parliament, president, the federal congress,the prime minister, the state, the Boma, the payam would only filter through and the negativity would be left as something to eradicate with real civilazation.
Peace would be a longing for all and under the above and ONLY under this influence are we able to stand tall and feel secure be it nuer, dinka, shulluk or indeed all the ethnic groups in south sudan.
Abuchook, I read all your complain about federalism, yes what we have now is already a Federal system arrangement but was not fully implemented that is why it has to be on negotiation table. You mention that if John Garang was alive things could get better, i can never agree with you brother because Dr.John was the cause of all this mess which he left to be implemented by Kiir Kuethpiny. If Dr.John was alive, immediately from his return from Uganda fight could start and Paulino Matip could not Joint South Sudan remember this. Why you always complain about Federalism and Independent of South Sudan? what happen to you Dinka? You picked the wrong ideology and wrong history which was never been supported by any tribe in South Sudan. Thanks God that we have Dr.Riek Machar who give birth to all the needs of South Sudanese. You were complaining that you were one of those who drafted protocols in Naibasha, you might be right but what i know so far is that all the people whom were neglecting Separation with North Sudan are no longer exist begins from Dr.John Garang and will be ended soon by Salva Kiir