The South Sudan Civil War: Who is Responsible For Failure of Peace?

By Walgak Chuol,


South Sudanese delegates at the last peace talks in March, 2015, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia(Photo: VOA)

South Sudanese delegates at the last peace talks in March, 2015, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia(Photo: VOA)

April 20, 2015(Nyamilepedia) — South Sudan Peace Talks began in January 2014 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia at the time when the IGAD countries call on both warring parties in order to resolve erupted political crisis in the peaceful way, a call in which the two conflicting parties had swiftly responded to.

This IGAD initiative was seen to be an excellent way forward that has to restore peace; honesty and loss hope back to the people of South Sudan. The regional body had successfully managed to bring the two warring faction on roundtable and strike a deal on the Cessation of Hostilities (CoH) on 23th January 2014, which had given great hope to the people of South Sudanese that the IGAD would manage to bring peace back to South Sudan, the dream that had not been materialized till date.

The warring factions agreed to an immediate implementation of cessation of hostilities and also accorded to immediate withdrawal of foreign troops that have had involved in to South Sudan’s internal conflict. The most notably one was the Ugandan troops involvement in addition to others forces such as Sudan rebel factions, JEM and SPLA-N.

Whose duty to supervise and implement the CoH? The answers to this question is straight forward thing, most people will agreed that IGAD has full responsibility and duties to oversee the whole agreement and take a notes on who violated the deal.

But miserably, IGAD neglected to implement the CoH documents signed by two warring factions under its supports by failing to give a maximum persuasion to UPDF to withdraw from South Sudan territory as per the agreement signed on 23th January 2014. IGAD also was so weak to give a maximum pressure on the side that has violated the signed deals and re-commitment to CoH was signed but did not progressed.

Its also IGAD failure to address the root cause of the conflict instead it has deployed a kind of approach that I refer as a “wrong approach” by trying to resolve the conflict using top-down approach. IGADS had left the traditional approaches that were used by Africans people when resolving their conflicts. IGAD did not engage the disputing side in to direct talks that could probably lead into honest discussion and final solutions.

IGAD had been designing all long a biased solution in attempt to end the conflict, a solution that would never bring peace back to South Sudan because it one sided and imposed postion. IGAD use to draw its one-sided position and tell the warring parties to accept signing it or else must face consequence.

This IGAD tactic had made it harder for warring faction to strike a deal or reaching a compromise zones. Those who happened to be favored by such a one-sided positions were not be willing to make a compromise beyond IGAD stand. This was what exactly has let down the final deal that supposed to be signed on March 6 round of table in Addis Ababa.

What else do we expect from IGAD or AU to deliver?

IGAD was so weak to condemn several violation on CoH made by pro government forces by advancing toward the Opposition held territories and did not hold them responsible at all. IGAD together with UNMISS have not condemned the massacre of Nuer IDP who took refugees at Bor’s UNMISS protection sites. The same IGAD and UNMISS also did not condemn the killing and disappearance of Nuer UN staff who were working with the UN, some them were beheaded in Upper Nile’s Maban county but UN or even IGAD did not held the pro movement forces accountable for crimes they had committed against the civilians. Where is the justice? It’s only the interests that work at the best. It’s obvious that there is no justice in the world.

IGAD did not maintain and protected its position as neutral mediator; it was only favoring the genocidal regime. This was clearly seen during its first draft position paper that had proposed Salva kiir to remain as a head of proposed Interim government and at the same time proposed the PM position for SPLM/A in Opposition, the proposal that its changed to First Vice President during the second of the peace talks. Why did IGAD change the proposal that call on creation of PM position? I think it was a delay tactic. There was no justification give as to why IGAD change this position. IGAD has been playing with a lot of time continuously by issuing an endless extension of peace talk duration with out giving proper justification as to why its so. This is clear delay tactic.

All along, IGAD was preferring Salva Kiir as president, a dictator, a murderer and unclean man, who had committed terrible genocide and crime in 21 century by killing more 20,000 unarmed civilians in capital city Juba, in present of all nations including US and EU. The victims of this war will never accept any kind of proposal that maintain Salva Kiir as a head of state.

IGAD has totally refused to address the root cause of the conflict, the very clear indication that it favor Juba regime. IGAD knew so well that Salva Kiir is sole responsible for whole crisis as sitting of head state, including the massacre of more 20,000 unarmed Nuer civilians in Juba. IGAD has no other option, it only want to see Salva Kiir to continue as a president after killing more than 20,000 South Sudanese Innocent Nuer civilians in Juba in cold blood. Salva Kiir and Museveni are using South Sudanese resources to manipulate and confuse the situation since both organizations; AU and IGAD are not that financially sustainable and independent, therefore they tend to prefer resources to the truth.

The US government and others nations failed to condemn Ugandan government’s interference in South Sudan internal conflict. They also failed to hold Salva Kiir accountable and responsible and call on him to resign. They just keep calling on withdrawal of Uganda troops from South Sudan but the Uganda refused to withdraw her forces.

Ugandan government made it clear that she will not withdraw her troops in South Sudan citing that Juba regime would collapse if she could do that and yet US government did not use maximum pressure to urge Ugandan government to withdraw her troops from South Sudan’s internal conflict. Can we say US is serious in ending South Sudan conflict? US government have no intention in ending the suffering of South Sudanese people by finalize the conflict that had devastating everything.

The present of foreign troops in South Sudan have given Juba regime a confident to win this war militarily. This interference has given Salva Kiir regime upper hands for being defended by foreign troops, the reason that he is refusing to commit to an honest peace.

Gen Salva Kiir knows very well that he has committed crime that deserves ICC. With that notion, of accountability issues, Salva Kiir want this war to get resolve through military might, the only option that will make him survive and avoid immediate ICC question. The aims of Juba regime is to crash the opposition and flush them out of south Sudan territory so that they claims the victory, the move that was not quite that simple due to toughest resistant they are facing from the opposition fighters.

Juba regime would have either signed peace or else face defeat had it not been military intervention of foreign fighters. It has not been so simple for Juba regime to deal with opposition fighters that was why they were so desperate by running everywhere for military supports; they went to China and others Africans countries in addition to Uganda and still they could not. Juba regime is doing this with simple motive that they want to remain in power though military power so that the serial killer Salva Kiir stays in power that will prevent him to go to ICC. IGAD comprise of long served dictators, the reason that it does want to see its friend, dictator Salva Kiir leave the presidency regardless of the good records of he had committed.

IGAD is working harder in fulfillment of Juba regime’s interest. The interest that it want to see South Sudan crisis get resolved without its roots cause of the conflict being addressed. The interests that it wants to see the SPLM/A in opposition return to Juba without grantee for safety through its friend’s fake amnesty. That is exactly what the so-called IGAD and Juba are up to.

The IGAD is working according to this interest of Juba nothing else, that is the reason why its does not want to talk about the roots cause of the conflicts because it knew that Salva Kiir was response for the killing of innocent people in Juba and that he is sole responsible for the whole ongoing conflict in the country. The IGAD has failed to understand that it’s not easy for victims to get convince and accept to surrender to their oppressors without proper justification on who initiate the crisis and the killing of the civilians.

I want to see IGAD lead peace be reboot or else IGAD must have to revise its strategy and accept to deal with roots cause of the conflict so that whosoever found responsible on this conflict must be held accountable and subsequently be excluded from proposed Interim Transition National Government and be surrendered to ICC and adjudicated in competent court of law.

We know as South Sudanese people that IGAD, which is dominated by Mr. Mussiveni of Uganda, who is also apart to the conflict, would not bring any good to people of South Sudan.

AU has also failed to show the leadership in the continent by refusing to release and publish its AU report that was complied by AU Commission of Inquiry on South Sudan conflict, a body that was tasked to find out the roots cause and the atrocities committed during the conflict.

AU commission has reduced itself in to the level of Salva Kiir’s court, which cannot tell the trust since it appointed and dictated by Salva Kiir. The AU report if released would help to indicate about the root cause of the conflicts and the atrocities committed during the conflict and most importantly redirect the focus toward the roots cause.

International communities are failing to urge AU commission of Inquiry to release its report; this is very dangerous position that the world is showing on South Sudan crisis. The silent and negligence of International community on South Sudan will give signal to world’s rogue regime to do the same to their citizens and at the will approve to the rest of world that there is no so called the “human rights and social justice”.

African Citizens were hoping on AU, that if IGAD did not achieve South Sudan peace, than AU should takeover the role of initiating the peace. The recent position of AU in refusing to release the report documents has proven its incapability in showing the real leadership and managing African affairs.

AU is therefore waiting an order from a white man to tell them to do what they can simples just do by themselves without being told to do so. When are we going to be independent as African people from these “whole dependence”from white man? However, my African leaders have failed the richest continent in the world for failing to resolve continental crisis that are made by none other than themselves. As a matter of facts, we would not prefer AU as alternative after this of failure of IGAD to bring to end the South Sudan conflict.

The failure of IGAD to deal with the root causes of the South Sudan conflict and as well as the negligence of US government to exercise the leadership by exerting a maximum pressure on UPDF in order to withdraw from South Sudan’s internal crisis has prolonged and complicates the conflict. The negligence of AU to get published the crimes and cause of conflict report has also contributed negatively a lot in finding the reality about the south Sudan conflict. How do we go about?

Now it’s a time for the world to review their standpoints by employing a new mechanism in regard to South Sudan’s crisis in order to bring to an end the 15 months long devastate civil war. The new formula, IGAD-plus would produce a very welcoming resolution in end 15 months long conflicts since the new formula would serve independent body that will not be influenced by Salva Kiir and Museveni as what they have been doing to AU and IGAD.

The way forward:

  • “No for IGAD or AU mediation” they already failed to bring peace in last 15 months. So they cannot be believe to bring peace back again after that far while South Sudanese are continuing suffering due to their endless talks postponements. They already refuse to focus on the root cause of the conflict would have had paved away for peace.
  • IGAD-Plus is the only way to go about because will bring about accuracy and move the talk from state of being biased.
  • “No for Aurusha SPLM- Re-Unification deal”: SPLM is not a South Sudan and South Sudan is not the SPLM. SPLM is just a part like others parties in the country. A lasting peace is a peace that shall include all the stakeholders, faiths groups and civil societies and political parties.
  • SPLM should to be banded or designed, as a “terrorist party” or else should face “a court case” for causing the ongoing crisis.
  • AU report from commission Inquiry has to get released and be published. Its important step to hold those who have dragged South Sudan in to war to be held accountable. There should be no peace without accountability, that peace should not be call as peace because it will not be violated. Those who are found to have committed crimes and responsible for crisis have to given a maximum punishment as it shall be prescribed by competent court of law, by doing so, people will fear the law and will not repeat such an acts.
  • Ugandan troops and others forces that had involved in conflict of South Sudan have to be pressure to withdraw with an immediate effect, their failure to do so, the world should go for them. Uganda troops have no legal ground to interfere in to the internal affairs of others nation and uniting against one half of the tribe to carry out extermination and committing others related atrocities.
  • Dictator Salva Kiir must be force to resign from the office and by doing so the bleeding in South Sudan will stop. South Sudan will be better place without him and if he failed to resign then the world should go for him. The world knows that he has committed the crime that does not need any justification and prove for the facts that all the crimes were committed in national capital city, in watched of everybody.
  • A UN force has to be deployed in most war-affected areas to create buffer zone that would acts as buffer and prevent any confrontation from either side of the warring parties. This initiative will reduce scales and cycles of attacks being traded by the warring parties and will give a chance to world body to take of any violation.
  • I Proposals with an immediate effect “Relocation of IDP” to more secure places such as neighboring countries Ethiopia, Kenya and Sudan where they will live free and get relieved from traumas of war that they had experienced from UNMISS premises. IDPs unlike others, are seriously suffering and continuous to suffers in side UNMISS congestion camps for they lack proper shelters, enough foods and freedom of movement.

The authority is concern South Sudanese citizen in India and can be reach at walgakchuol@yahoo.

  3 comments for “The South Sudan Civil War: Who is Responsible For Failure of Peace?

  1. Gueto
    April 20, 2015 at 11:22 pm

    Walgak Chuol, Why do you blamed others instead South Sudanese?
    It should be a great lesson to Dr.Rick and those who following him. Rushing to take arms against the nation is not a solution at all. Peace will come.


  2. April 21, 2015 at 3:18 am

    Ya so called Gueto or whatever you call yourself, are you not ashame of being froud of foreign merchenaries (UPDF, JEM, SPLM-N, M23, SSLA) plus other Nuer-wew troops in your rotten gov’t yet you always claims that you are the majority. Now everyone in S. Sudan has known that you are majority for nothing in the Republic of South Sudan.


    • Gueto
      April 21, 2015 at 4:18 am

      Hi Kerker,

      Without Dinka during struggle, 1955-2005 in SS, where would be NO independent of RSS, don’t said (Now everyone in S. Sudan has known that you are majority for nothing in the Republic of South Sudan.)
      “Said” absent minded Nuers with Dr.Rick Machar, the prophet of doom who is not appreciated achievement of Dinka. All Tribes in SS are proud of Dinka.

      Only power hunger Nuers with Dr.Rick Machar, the prophet of doom is trying all in vain to create new history in RSS because of bad history they have.

      “Foreign mercenaries”, it is the same songs by Khartoum regime during war with SPLA. Please, stop crying, come back, and recall in 2002, Dr.Rick Machar was warmly welcome with others, because they didn’t have objectives for stabbed back SPLA.


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