By Ter Manyang Gatwech | Kampala-Uganda.
Sept 13, 2015 (Nyamilepedia) — The development of man to enable him create and recreate himself the pursuit of a wide-range of activities, planned and managed for the benefit of society and its members (Audu, 2004); the systematic influencing of peoples knowledge, skills and attitudes (Nduka, 2006); the transmission from one generation to another, the accumulated wisdom, knowledge, skills, values and attitudes of the society (Nyerere, 1967).
It is clear that education makes man moral and ethical; inducts the individual into the shared values of society; develops commitment to societal goals in the individual; prepares the young members of society for the future; defines behavioral patterns of individuals and society; and also enhances the productive capabilities of individuals and by extension the society. Education is the gateway to development, and the literature has adequately highlighted this. One of such studies has noted that:
Formal education has a vital role to play in the development and social change of human communities. For development and change to take place, education is necessary. It creates the environment and conditions conducive for change to take place… education is the builder and molder of attitude and behavior of members of the society which lend support to the process of development and change (Ekin-Okut, 1985:54).
Whereas the above reference emphasize formal education, it is imperative to note that informal education also enhances the goals of development. Although the dominant expectation of education is development, it is also expected that it will enhance the integration of sub-populations that are divided by language, religion or ethnicity (Peshkin, 1967). Education is noted for three political roles– agent of political socialization into a nation’s political culture; the training and selection of political elite; and the enhancement of political integration and national political consciousness (Fagerlind and Saha,1989)
Indeed, educations are a product, process that reforms society, and induce desirable change in behavior patterns of individuals (Okorosaye-Orubite, 2008). This provides the basis that education can be a vehicle for national integration in South Sudan.
- IMPLEMENTATION OF FOOD SECURITY POLICIES
Food security is one of the monsters that target many developing countries of the world. With the majority of people in this part of the world as farmers, there is an urgent need to save the rural communities through the provision of an adequate infrastructure. Such a system would support food and cash crop production for domestic consumption and export (brings foreign funds for development of the country).
It is pertinent to note that most of the rural communities are border towns. Rural people should be enlightened on the importance of the country’s sovereignty and (they should be on alert) on the damaging effects of intolerance of neighboring brothers. If the rural communities are at peace, the rest of the country will also enjoy peace because they are the majority. The library must wake up from its traditional role by imbibing ideas and services that will have direct and relevant bearing on the citizenry.
- RURAL DEVELOPMENT
Rural areas in South Sudan constitute 70% of the country’s population while the urban area makes up the other 30% (Dosunmu, 1986). The development of the rural area falls within the precinct of the third tier of government called the local government. The people at the rural level also know the local government as the “grassroots government” because of its closeness. The developmental needs of rural people and provisions of social and economic amenities rest with the local government, which oversees the human and natural resources requirements of the area.
There cannot be national development without including the rural areas.
According to Aboyade (1990), the well-being of the greater percentage of the population depends on the benefits of rural development, which in turn, radiate national development.
In spite of the importance of rural development to national development, studies have clearly shown that there is no meaningful development in the rural area that can be used to jump start national growth. Therefore, local government area councils are to blame for the abandonment of tools needed for rapid social, economic, and political development. However, not only the government is at fault, but also the people and corporate bodies who are to compliment these efforts in the provision of amenities required to propel rapid rural development.
Adebowale (1998) affirms that students, researchers, scholars, teachers, retired persons, farmers, and artisans are the different groups that make up the community in every local government. If this submission is right, then rural development deserves urgent attention before it reaches a comatose state. For rural development to have a strong impact on national development infrastructures such as motor available roads, health services, schools, portable water supplies, and improved economic activities, adequate attention is a necessity. Above all, the rural populace must be well informed through adequate structured and unstructured information services; it is more important to prevent chaos, than to start looking for ways of quelling it.
The true color of the rural community in South Sudan shines with its abundance of human and natural resources. Through well-designed information, services that use indigenous and modem resources (within the environment), lasting unity and peace can emerge in multi-ethnic and diverse South Sudan.
The Urban Strategy seeks, foremost, the physical, social and economic integration of our cities and towns. This means that:
- Jobs, housing, and urban amenities of all kinds must be furnished in more efficient and integrated urban and metropolitan settlements. Co-locating urban functions will make cities and towns more efficient in a number of ways. Physically more integrated cities and towns would mean shorter commuting distances and times. Such interventions will not only make individual cities and towns more efficient, but they could also have a significant effect on the national economy.
- Intensified development should focus public investment around both developed and emergent nodal points in the urban system. This selective intensification should also occur along already existing transportation corridors. In this way, “reorganization areas” and “activity corridors” will be created. Such intensified development must aim at establishing better conditions of access to an expanded range of nearby facilities.
- The rebuilding of the townships is an essential part of urban reconstruction and integration. The dormitory, role of low-income areas must finally be terminated. Specific attention will be focused on these low-income areas: townships, informal settlements, and low-income inner city, residential zones. These areas represent an under-utilized resource for the future. They have to be transformed into productive, habitable, environmentally healthy and safe urban environments, free from crime and violence. Rebuilding the townships is unquestionably the single most important urban development challenge facing the country. It cannot occur in isolation from integrating strategies. The intention is certainly not to reinforce the segregation between different parts of the dry. What needs to be done, however, is to ensure equity across the urban landscape and thus offer all urban residents proper opportunities and facilities. This transformation will include augmenting and diversifying urban functions, upgrading existing and constructing new housing, restoring and extending infrastructure services, promoting investment and economic activities and alleviating environmental health hazards.
- Public passenger transportation routes and systems should be improved and made more flexible. Better urban transportation will increase household mobility and thus access to wider labour markets and opportunities. Links between central city areas and outlying areas and between nodal points in the urban system will have to be strengthened.
- Physical integration and social integration should go hand in hand. An understanding of the “interwoven destinies” of urban stakeholders is a precondition for improved economic performance. Seen through the prism of the global economy, our urban areas are single economic units that either rise, or stagnate and fall together.
- YOUTH EMPOWERMENT
South Sudanese youths constitute the most active segment of the entire population of over 9 million people. They are the social diplomats and a veritable channel or catalyst for positive changes in the rural community, in school or urban setting. These youths need love and a fair share of the national wealth. They are people with high hopes, great expectations from parents and elders in the society. At this point, it is necessary to examine the concept of youth as a prelude to an appraisal of this social group. It should be noted that differences exist in perception of the term “youth” by governments, international organizations, and the public. However, the term “youth” generally implies a period of life between childhood and adulthood.
In most countries of the world, adult status is officially attained at the age of 21 years. Non-the-less, in many African countries, the ability of a person to enter into or sustain a marriage signifies to the public that one has attained adulthood. Hence, chronological age alone does not determine an adult status. It is noteworthy that with increasing modernization, there is a tendency for most African countries, at least in their official transactions, to follow the United Nations or the British Commonwealth definitions of youths as people within the age of 15 – 24 and 15 – 29 years respectively (Egbue, 2006). Quite appreciably, susceptibility of youth to parental and societal influences, which shape their lives and determine their well-being, constitutes a major characteristic of youth. This issue has been examined by Gelles (1987), Wallerstein and Kelly (1992).
Accordingly, a large part of the problem of youths in all societies hinge on this factor: There is the tendency to associate youth sub-culture with deviance. Igbo (2000) describes this situation as one in which they are socialized into and committed to a set of values, standards, expectations and behavior pattern, distinguishable from those of adult society.
Youths are the back –bone of a nation. They can make or destroy a nation. Nation –integration is a concept of national – utility. Integration or unity means co-ordination in any organization. Society has three parts. They are worked jointly with each and other. These parts are children, youths, and olds . Children and old person cannot build a nation because they have not any power in their blood. If youths can easily develops our nation. Igbo (2000) observed that areas of youth’s rejection include values of community ownership, assistance to others as demonstrated in extended family relationships, sanctity of human life and female chastity before marriage.
According to Egbue (2006) while seeking independence from adult expectations and demands, the youth enter into what may be regarded as a form of almost compulsive conformity and loyalty to the peer group. This is often marked by intolerance of deviance to the sub culture; a situation that helps to increase the cultural gap between youths and the older generation, thus further distancing the former from involvement in mainstream societal goal. Surely, youth violence is quite often viewed by social scientists as an expression of frustration.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Unity occurs when all of the elements of a piece combine to make a balanced, harmonious, complete whole. Unity is another of those hard-to-describe art terms but, when it is present, your eye and brain are pleased to see it. In the process of researching to build up this work, the following recommendations have been suggested, that:
- Education has a central role to play as far as empowering our youth for national development is concerned. Entrepreneurial education has become necessary in all our labor development efforts in South Sudan principally because government departments and private organizations for the employable graduates from our secondary and tertiary educational institutions are creating few new employments.
- More South Sudanese youths should be trained as artisans, technicians to make for self-reliance. Anya (2005) laments that lack of the technical and vocational orientation and content in South Sudanese education had limited ultimately the achievement of the growth potential of the economy. The outcome constrained the opportunities for employment leading to the high unemployment rate seen among products at all levels of the educational system but much more so among university graduates.
- Excessive reliance on the public sector for the provision of socio-economic resources and the creation of jobs has been the bane of development efforts in South Sudan. It has now been fully realized that the public sector alone cannot provide these facilities because of the limited resources at its disposal. Government must realize its limitations and create an enabling environment for the private sector participation in this regard.
- There is a growing need for creativity in the modern day society. The society is characterized by complexity and interdependence, technological and communications advances. Rising expectations certainly call for increased levels of creativity.
The author, Ter Manyang, is an administrator and chairman of Gawaar Nuer-Community in Uganda. He worked with South Sudanese Students’ Union in 2011-2012 as a chairman of anti-of corruption commission. He become chairman of electoral commission of Naath Universities and Colleges Students’ Union in Uganda from 2014-2015 and he formed an organization called Youth Action Development Network in Uganda, he is executive director of YADN.
Ter Manyang Gatwech is pursuing his Masters of Public Administration and Management at Cavendish Universityb Uganda and reached me via- email@example.com or twitter, @Ter-Manyang