History: Dr. Garang’s 1972 Letter To Gen. Joseph Lagu to Resolve Two Armies Arrangement!

“We are already at war and we are growing stronger everyday while sooner or later the Numeiry regime will go…”,

The Commander in chief

Anyanya National Armed Forces

Leader of the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement

Members of the Anyanya SSLM Negotiation Committee

anyaanyaoneThe General Headquarters

Anyanya National Armed Forces

South Sudan

 January 24, 1972

By Dr. John Garang de Mabior

Dear compatriots:

April 21, 2015(Nyamilepedia) — That we are strong, growing in force and power to be reckoned with in Sudanese politics. Status and future is evidenced by the fact that the Khartoum administration is now interested in negotiating a peace settlement directly with the Anyanya.

We must take a firm stand all the way in the coming talks. The Numeiry regime is a sick administration ripe to collapse any time. We must not be tricked into committing suicide to lay down our instruments of liberation, arms, by a withering and dying regime just for the purpose of lengthening its own days of breath or just that some opportunistic Southerners find a means of employment in the blood of our people.

We are already at war and we are growing stronger everyday while sooner or later the Numeiry regime will go, but nothing will ever defeat us if we persist in the war. Let no one among you or among the enemy have the mistaken and opportunist’s view that these talks are the last chance of peace for Southern Sudanese people. Let no one have incorrect view that if these talks collapse and fail war will break out. We are already at war for the last nine to seventeen years. The Anyanya and Southern Sudanese people are capable and ready to fight on for another nine years or more if no correct and acceptable solution is found.

Any solution within the context of a New United Sudan must first and foremost recognize the Anyanya as the legitimate army of the Southern Sudanese people. The implementation of whatever degree of merging agreed by the negotiating armies and administrations to the United New Sudan must take not less then ten years ; during this time the two armies and administrations must maintain separate identities while conditions for their gradual merging into United New Sudan are being created by both sides. This is the only procedure that guarantees the future and interests of the Southern Sudanese people in a United New Sudan and the objective indication that both sides are sincere in seeking the cessation of belligerency, peaceful settlement and life in a United Sudan.

Following is a more comprehensive presentation of guidelines to the spirit, objectives and strategy which should be adopted at the talks and which, if followed, could possibly lead to a solution acceptable to the rank-and-file of the Anyanya and the Southern Sudanese People.


  1. The Central Problem in the Sudanese war is the dominance of Arab Nationalism. It is historically a universal law that in whatever multi-nationality country where one of the nationalities is economically and politically (and therefore socially and culturally) dominant over other nationalities, that country is pregnant with instability, discontent and crisis eventually erupting in warfare. Such has been the case in the Sudan.

  1. The Southern Sudanese people, in conformity with historical necessity, took up arms against the glaring oppression and neglect meted on them by  the forces of Arab Nationalism, an oppression and neglect which were as glaring as they were cruel , rackless and raking as they were arrogant. It was only  after the virtual exhaustion of all peaceful constitutional possibilities of multi-national coexistence with a United Progressive Sudan that the disaffection and indignation of the Southern Sudanese People reached their human boundaries and war broke out, war had to break out.

  1. Constitutional guarantees against exactions and barbarities of Arab Nationalism, accommodations and adjustments to the mal-practices of Arab Chauvinism have all failed the past to be respected and to meet the aspirations of the Southern Sudanese People. This is why war had to break out in the first place.

  1. There is no reason, absolutely no objective reason for clearheaded Southerners and Northerners alike to believe after eight years and more of continuous warfare and the repeated failures of some forms of constitutional guarantees that paper constitutional guarantees are now going to solve the war in the Sudan. Any Southerner who holds the mistaken view that Arab Nationalism now sincere, now means good business, now gives the South local autonomy in good faith and that this autonomy will  be guaranteed by a few phrases scribbled on some sheets of paper stapled and bound together and christened “ The Constitution”, that Southerner either suffers from acute historical myopia or else advocates the treasonable stand of opportunism, national subjugation and continued Arab Chauvinism and domination; in short, such Southerner calls for surrender in a camouflaged form.

  1. It is historically evident that unless a correct consistent Social Democratic solution is found to the Central Question, i.e., to the problem of economic and political domination of Arab Nationalism over other nationalities, then, any attempts at solving the war in Sudan, no matter how refined and logical on paper, will always end in certain failure.

  1. There is no objective indication that the Khartoum-based Arab nationalist administration are capable of concluding a consistent social democratic solution to the National Question in the Sudan. Arab Nationalism in the Sudan, consistent with its predatory nature, proposes and declares solutions such as “local autonomy” within the context of a United Arab Sudan. Such muddle-headedness returns us back to 1963 and1955 and is an objective indication that the necessary mutation which would enable ruling Northerners to face up to the objective realities of the Sudan has not yet taken root.

  1. There are only two possible ways for resolving the Sudanese crises: The birth of two nation-states out of the present (geographical) Sudan or political autonomy for both the South and the North (and/or any other part that so demands) in a federated United New Sudan. Political Autonomy in this usage means that the autonomous regions have adequate political power, in terms of armed forces, to protect the region against the encroachment by the federation or by one of the regions in the federation, and, furthermore, that a region retains the right to secede from the federation if its interests are not adequately served by the federation. (It must be clear to Southerners that the retention of the right to secede from such a federation must be guaranteed by the federal constitution and by the existence of a physical Southern Armed Forces.)

  1. We can not dwell on the status of matters regarding the super-structure such as judicial system, fundamental rights and freedoms, personal liberty, freedom of religion and conscience, freedom of minority to use their language and develop their culture, education, tele-communications, census , etc, etc.(all contained in Mading de Garang’s proposed constitution for the democratic republic of Sudan). The status of these and others will ultimately depend on either the solution is two nation-states or political autonomy (as defined above) for the two regions (or more) in a federated (NEW) Sudan. These peripheral issues must not be allowed to detract the deliberations of the talks, nota bene para VII above.


It is imperative that the basis and necessary conditions be created and for these basis and conditions to be developed and mature so as to objectively arrive at a United (NEW) and lasting peace. This approach is to start from the objective realities of the Sudan. It is chauvinistic and naive to start with assumption of a United (ARAB) Sudan and then turn around and try to force the contradictory objective realities to conform to the subjective naïve assumption and wishes of a United Arab Sudan. Hence it follows from the objective facts in section (A) that for a United New Sudan the following conditions must be met:

  1. Arab Nationalism in the Sudan must be categorically renounced. This concretely means that Arab Nationalism must no longer be neither an internal (therefore) nor an external policy and practice in the United New Sudan.

  1. There at present two armies, the Anyany and the army of the Khartoum administration; these armies are now at war in the Sudan. This point we hope is recognized by all  as an objective existence for that is precisely why there are negotiations. Well, if the Sudan is to be a one United Country, if this is the interests of both Northerners and Southerners, then, which of these two warring armies will be the army of the New Sudan the Anyanya, the army of the Khartoum administration or both and how and/or why?

  1. The Anyanya thus must firstly be accepted by the Khartoum administration as the arm of the South Sudan. Failure to recognize the Anyanya the legitimate army of the South would amount to denial or refusal to admit a physical existence, and the result of such naïveté would be the inevitable collapse of the negotiations and the continuation of the war whether anybody likes it or not.

  1. The solution to the war and for the United NEW Sudan must be viewed as a synthesis of two armies (the Anyanya and the army of the Khartoum rulers) and the formation of a new type of army consistent with the particularity of the NEW Sudan. The solution must not be looked at or hoped to be (as is always the case) the ABSORPTION of one army the Anyanya into other (the army of the Khartoum Arab Administration), but rather as we said as a SYNTHESIS of two warring armies. Whether such synthesis is possible depends on whether the necessary mutation within the forces of the Arab Nationalism and within the Anyanya exists. I am not aware that there has been such an objective necessary mutation, but I am only assuming its implied existence for otherwise there would be no objective grounds for the negotiations! And the originators of these negotiations could legitimately be charged with treasonable political scheming and racketeering against the beloved people.

  1. A minimum period of five years must initially be allowed for the creation and maturation of necessary conditions and mutations required by the merging of the two belligerent armies and administrations into the New Sudan divorced of belligerency and of the basic cause of belligerence, Arab Nationalism. The armies and administrations of the Anyanya and of the Khartoum dictatorship must maintain separate identities during these five years of groundwork of conditions for Unity.

  1. After the first initial five years of groundwork another minimum period of five years must be allowed for the actualization of the agreed degree of merging by the two armies and administrations. Merging and the actual objective formation of the NEW Sudan will be rapid in the second five years period, since the necessary conditions and mutations for a United NEW Sudan will have been created in the first five years of groundwork.

  1. We have made the above recommendations (guidelines) after a brief presentation of the objective political realities of the Sudan, nota bene Section (A) above. We have made these recommendations without fear of intimidation and with sincerity, objectivity and to the best interests of the Peoples of South Sudan, Africa and the world. We strongly believe that a United NEW Sudan and lasting peace and progress can be arrived at only through ACTION and not through PAPER declarations, resolutions and mechanical scheming. If the solution is sought within the spirit and logic of the above facts and recommendations, then, peace, progress and a United (NEW) Sudan are possible objectives to realize. But if, on the contrary hand, a solution is sought within the spirit of Arab Nationalism and the context of a United Arab Sudan, then, gentlemen of the negotiations, instability, crisis and continued warfare are the only invited options and the Anyanya consistent with its historical and historic task of African liberation will take these options so mercilessly and mercifully placed upon its shoulders by blood thirsty Arab Chauvinism.

  29 comments for “History: Dr. Garang’s 1972 Letter To Gen. Joseph Lagu to Resolve Two Armies Arrangement!

  1. April 21, 2015 at 2:31 am

    This article is a sensible undate and exatly a reminder to Mr. Ebola Kiir and his fellow tribalist cohorts. So, they should watch out and refrain from talking ill about proposed two separate armies in the would TGoNU.


    • Pierano
      April 21, 2015 at 4:01 am

      Nuer separate army???? for what, don’t bring CPA scenario here in this small South Sudan, Nuer rebellion to be rewarded with their own army in South Sudan? how can the rest of the tribe say, will they also started training their own armies?, Dinka with their own armies, Equatorians with their own armies then we see who cross to which border as borders will be considered international whereby Nuer coming from Jonglei to cross to Uganda via Equatoria Must have Valid Passport and pay the amount of passing through Equatoria, this is what the Tribal Nuer Rebellion is fighting for, they are now fighting for the Independence of Greater Upper Nile simply because they think the oil belongs to them, Shame on you, Government will not accept two armies in this small country, two armies, better war to continue, because if Government accept two armies, same problem of Central African Republic and Yemen will happen here in South Sudan, rebels will start fighting to remove the Government because they may allege agreement is not been implemented.

      That is it, two armies better war to crush the one tribe rebellion. you are deceiving your self that the rebellion is for all South Sudanese, where? why do you think non Nuers ( say Equatorians, Dinkas etc) in this rebellion are only position seekers ( Politicians without single army) who are staying in Either Addis, Uganda or Kenya without fighting in the Front line, because they know the innocent Nuer Youths are dying to secure for them Jobs, the nuer think they are been prasied to be people who don’t fear death, Ok, continue dying for this power hungry politicians and later realise that your young engergetic youths are finished in this Greedy war only for Power and Oil resources. Salva will not rule for ever, the question is, will the dead come to life after Salva is no longer on power??

      Please go to most of the front line for the Nuer rebels and see for your self if you can find a non Nuer rebel, all are Nuers, Language used for instruction during rehearsal is Nuer only,


      • GatNor
        April 21, 2015 at 10:22 am

        Two armies under different commands. Kiir started it all with his private armed terrorist militias that needs to be re-integrated as well.


        • April 21, 2015 at 3:23 pm

          They will eliminate all the so-called SPLM -IO as Dr.Riek has eliminated his FAKE PHD BRAIN.


      • Abuchook
        April 21, 2015 at 12:04 pm

        Dear Mr. Pierano:

        Firstly you right because my nuer people are just dying for the stupid leader’s selfish interested individuals.

        I was In Akobo today 04/21/2015 and I have seen dead walking young Nuer people preaching warriors attitudes rather than peace and schools and future thinking about what now for next year or 5 ?.
        They are misinformed and ready to die for Riek. wow wow and when I asked these young Nuer people what exactly Riek does for you and your local community since the CPA until now? They told me that Riek did nothing Zero achievement then they told me only Riek fight for Nuer people interests and that’s why we are dying for him Riek. So I asked these young Nuer people again for Riek to win he needs not only to be Nuer people leader but for other tribes too. They told me you are our enemy go away from here now.
        But In reality my people are not seeing far enough of what really affecting our community in long term. They still have 18th century Mentalities: warrior and bravest fighters without tactical strategy just rebellion and fighting and when loss then that is it they have no courage and determine of what they are fighting for could be longer or almost forever. I have seen these young Nuer people in person how they talked about war war but later when reality comes to mind and heart they will leave front line and joint the peace loving people specially our neighbors communities.

        I am starting worried about my Nuer people specific the Lou and Gawaar and Bentiu because they think as warriors or Bravest but In reality time will come and judge the outcome of this stupid war and recruiting for our young Nuer people then died for one man Riek goals and objectives that lead to No Where..?.
        I have seen both Riek and Taban in Addis Ababa Sheraton Hotel last month, wow wow they don’t even feel it the suffering of our local citizens. And this is my point here.

        Thank you very much.


        • GatNor
          April 21, 2015 at 12:52 pm

          So you agree Kiir’s private armed militias need to be integrated into the NEXT South Sudan ARM Forces?


        • GatNor
          April 21, 2015 at 1:01 pm

          So you are not Nuer and you were told to go away that you are an enemy. That is a good news. They are turning dogs like you away. How do you feel about that you stupid dog pretending to be concern for Nuer but contradicting your stupid self within your own sentences. Incase you have not noticed I read between the lines. You have been on some other website reading on some shitty profiles and activities and you are here trying to use your head. As you were told by those young Nuers…

          GO AWAY YOU STUPID DOG.. How emotional is that response for you coward.


          • Abuchook
            April 21, 2015 at 3:34 pm

            Mr. GatNor,
            You may say that I am stupid dog but the way you are thinking and responding is not leading us any where.
            Remember I am not your enemy if I disagree with you and your point of view.
            So that’s what happened between me and the young Nuer people In Akobo: they think nobody can disagree with their points of view and If you do disagree with them they put you as an enemy.

            Please my point to them these young Nuer people was that to make this war as for other tribe too and starting recruiting from their communities for man power.
            In case you missed my point I visited many Nuer local defense forces(LDF). As a result Most of them thinking that they can win this WAR as Nuer only. I laughed and shake my head. As a private citizen I told my personal opinion to Riek last month in Addis Ababa at the Sheraton Hotel. He seemed cool with It and I told him that I came from the local ground community in South Sudan.

            GatNor, now you know what I am talking about, please be respect to others if you disagree with their points of view.

            Thank you.


          • GatNor
            April 21, 2015 at 6:47 pm

            According to you its a Nuers rebellion so why flip flop. Its either you agree or disagree. You cannot discourage the liberation by scowling Nuer and pretent you sympathized with their agony of their losts. And at the same time you said they will not win. Do you see how you are so stupidly transparent. Ofcourse its better for a useless dog like you to be told where to go. The rebellion is attracting everyone in the country because the problem cause by Juba thugs are affecting everyone but you seem to only a have a beef with the Nuers and that’s is pathetic.


          • GatNor
            April 21, 2015 at 6:53 pm

            I don’t care even if you visited heavens, you are absolutely naïve to think that people don’t see the nature of your silly and childish propaganda. Its not working so give up already.


        • April 22, 2015 at 5:48 am

          Abuchuk ! Abuchuk !, son of bitch, you are as stupid as sheep, you are really the black sheep of the family if you’re really a Nuer as you alleged
          As a young man and sensitive human being, those words shouldn’t come out from your mouth.
          I know that you are the Nuer- wew that sold out the bloods of our innocent people in Juba when Fucking kiir gelweng killed them shamelessly without spares.
          Do even read and understand what was the root cause of this war in the country?
          You are the only people that only use their mouths to eat and never know the food they are eating is coming from
          South sudan we are now was only liberated from the north in the same passion.
          i repeat that if you are a truly nationalist you would have not expressed those nonsenses in the media
          The blood of our people you are enjoying now will turn into non stop wailing from you soon.
          Ours is not a tribal rebellion as you claim.
          In all south Sudan’s 64 tribes there is a fighter and official leader.

          long live IO long live south sudan!


    • Abuchook
      April 21, 2015 at 3:52 pm

      Mr. Stephen,
      Here Is your response comment in your own words to my comment:
      “They have to also know that 70% of regular(National) forces is commanded by Dr. Riak Machar Teny right now as we talks. So these two tribal mind-sets should not just writes what they don’t know at all!”

      Mr. STEPHEN, in reality as you said if Riek has 70% of regular army fighting against 30% of regular army, then logically why they can not capture Juba city, Why they can not stay in Bortown, Gadiang, Poktap and Ayod and Bentiu??????? Why war Is now in most Nuer area??? Why Riek does focusing on one area that is not affecting the Juba governmen??? Please explain to me and tell me why and what and prove these questions right logically not Bala Bala Bala and so on.
      Mr. Stephen just you may confused: I know exactly what I am writing about and I know exactly what I am talking about here.


  2. April 21, 2015 at 1:17 pm

    These two ignorats so called Pienaro and Abuchook need to be educated because it seem like they don’t know what’s going on in this Country. So, let them know that Nuer are not the people that can be intimidated since during their creator. And let them also know that Kiir is commanding only foreign troops plus his Barh el-gazal boys(Mathiang anyoor, Gelweng but South Sudan is not weng or cows and dotkubeny). They have to also know that 70% of regular(National) forces is commanded by Dr. Riak Machar Teny right now as we talks. So these two tribal mind-sets should not just writes what they don’t know at all!


    • Abuchook
      April 21, 2015 at 3:05 pm

      Mr. Stephen,
      To be honest I know exactly what is going on this country of South Sudan.
      You may think that I don’t know but you are seeing far less than me and you are not feeling and seeing the Suffering of our local citizens. If you do, please stop writing stupid comments and suggestions another better ways to fight and win this war.

      Mr. Stephen, May be you are blindness by Riek and our Nuer people name only…you are not even making anything else to change our local community for better.

      I can prove you dead wrong if I need to be but I can not waste my time for that.
      Thank you sooooooo much and Good luck with your own comments.


      • April 21, 2015 at 7:10 pm

        Abuchok, will just join us soon. They are rejected by other dinka because they speak Thok Naath and they look like Naath.

        Liked by 1 person

  3. Chol Wani
    April 21, 2015 at 1:43 pm

    Which primitive commander will lead the Nuer army? We all know that Dinka army is led by a primitive general named Paul Malong

    Chol Wani


  4. Chol Wani
    April 21, 2015 at 1:47 pm

    What is the source of this letter alleged to have been written by John Garang?
    Bear in mind that before 1983, not many south Sudanese knew about John Garang simply because he was busy attending to his personal affairs in Khartoum.

    Chol Wani


  5. April 21, 2015 at 6:56 pm

    Yeah this is a truth letter has written by John Garang and the sources was confirmed so if you want to check it then go do some research.


  6. April 21, 2015 at 7:17 pm

    Who is General Ladu? The content of this letter is questionable.


    • madang
      April 25, 2015 at 7:22 pm

      Yes, I really wanted to find out this general by the name of Ladu. Someone help me!


  7. April 21, 2015 at 7:33 pm

    Is this letter authentic or it is a hoax.


  8. April 21, 2015 at 10:24 pm

    Reblogged this on Cosbylogy.


  9. April 22, 2015 at 12:21 am

    Nuer are conqueror, Dinka kingdom days are numbered! Juba is falling soon! Dr.John acknowledge the use of 2 army but who is Kiir to understand this while he is illiterate! He knows only to say ” Riak told me that inu there will be two army to be amalgamated after three month but i told him that there will be no to army and some people are supporting Riak, they told me that stick is up here but i told them that let it hit where ever it want to hit” look even those media usually said kiir rejected proposal with out deliberation. Who is negotiator here and who is educated here?

    Liked by 1 person

  10. April 22, 2015 at 1:48 am

    I never like Anyaanya since it was created and Anyaanya became real Kokora and Insects of Joseph James Tombura.


    • madang
      April 25, 2015 at 7:36 pm

      In Uganda and other parts of the world we the Jeng are distinguished by the curses and the arrogance that follows our bloodline. The uncivil conduct and the curses of my Jeng people is to blame for any disintegration of the country. Whether we like it or not, KOKORA is coming to pocket people into their regions and secure lives of the citizens!


  11. April 22, 2015 at 5:10 am

    Agumut? You are failure and continue to be failure! Thank God that South Sudanese did not vote for your vision of New Sudan which killed people for nothing. If you still needs Ideology of United Sudan (New Sudan) then go and join SPLA-N and leave us for our ideology of Anyanya


    • April 22, 2015 at 5:37 am

      I never been for United Sudan,it is you Nuer who are for United Sudan.


    • GatNor
      April 22, 2015 at 10:11 am

      Yeah, let him go to SPLA-North. He will find out quickly that he is another dog that was and is still not wanted. They are so stupid that they still don’t get it that the Arabs North of Sudan still do not recognizes their existent leave alone peacefully coexistence. The Arab don’t want to accept nor acknowledges rights of the state of Israel to exist even though the two idiots come from the same blood of Jacob and Isaac fathered by one man but different mothers. An Arab will take in a Jew quicker than he would take in a Jang from South Sudan, just put it that way. It would have made more sense to kick them out of the whole Sudan than to delude ourselves that we would ever have a lasting peace to coexist with shared values.


  12. April 24, 2015 at 8:13 am

    Reblogged this on SHG: Information Hub Blog.


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